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Broadcasting media particularly television is one of the major agents of socialization, education and mobilization in this contemporary society of ours where many youths are found of enjoying one activities or the other on television such as: sport, soap opera, eduTv like: Who Wants to be a Millionaire, Brain Test, Quiz T.V, take a step, reality shows among others. The core objective of the research is to investigate the role of broadcast media on youth development using Madona University students as a case study. Today education is not limited within teacher and classroom because broadcast media have proved that education is really comprehensive not confined within four walls of the classroom. However, for the purpose of this study, survey research method was employed while 200 copies of questionnaire were administered to 200 respondents that were drawn among Madona University students using probability sampling techniques. Data analysis for this study is the use of frequency and percentage with tables. Findings of the study have shown that television has gone a long way in improving and promoting education in Nigeria and throughout the world because of its unique advantage of audiovisual transmission.
1.1 Background to the Study
The level of educational development of a region or a country is often measured by the general level of literacy of the entire populace and not the educational qualification of a certain group of members of that region or country. This is why government always aims at increasing the reading culture of its people even when a great percentage can very well read and write. In Nigeria for instance, millennial can access every kind of information they want on the internet and are very much exposed to world affairs on a daily speed so that it can be said that they can measure up with their counterparts of the rest of the developed and developing world.
However, the same cannot be said for other Nigerians of other generations who are not technologically savvy. Take the average American octogenarian who has the technological know-how to access the internet, use his mobile phone and an iPad. In this case the educational level is very high as the least exposed member of society is comfortably exposed and well educated and can keep up with changing times.
For this reason, educational development will not depend on reading and formal teaching alone. Educational contents are to be fused into the daily lives of people so that they unconsciously assimilate them. Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world” says Nelson Mandela. Education in its general sense is a form of learning in which the knowledge, skills and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next through teaching, training or research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of others, but may also be autodidactic (a person who has learned something without a teacher or formal education; a self-taught person). Education is more than reading, writing, and arithmetic. It is one of the most important investments a country can make in its people and its future and is critical to reducing poverty and inequality. Any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational. Education is commonly divided into stages such as preschool, primary school, secondary school and then college or university. Human development is partly a matter of people and communities improving their own lives and taking greater control of their destinies. Education is broadly used as an instrument for social change. The critical point of such belief can be traced far back to the 1960s when Theodre Schultz systematically articulated the human capital theory of development. In his voluminously printed works, Schultz argued that population quality and knowledge constitute the principal determinants of the future welfare of mankind (Schultz 1961).
Adding to this argument, Harbison and Hanushek (1992) contended that a country which is unable to develop the skills and knowledge of its people and to utilize them effectively in the national economy will be unable to develop anything else. Article 26 of the 1948 UN universal declaration of human rights declared that everyone has a right to education and that this education shall be free and compulsory. It went on to say that education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. If education is viewed as a human right, then it implies that education is for everybody in the society. The challenge towards this drive is how to indeed make education available to all and in good quality. As regard to the purpose of that education, this is all about the role of education in peoples’ future’s lives. Education has a great significance for the economic social and cultural development. The aim of educational policy should therefore be to give every person a chance of developing his/her inherent potential. It is this kind of education which will bring about accelerated economic growth, more wealth and income, decline in population growth, national unity and political stability. Most people agree that every person has the right to an education. But investing in education is also the smart thing to do. Why? Because education gives people the skills they need to help themselves out of poverty and into prosperity. With education, people are better prepared to prevent disease and to use health services effectively. For example educated mothers have healthier children.
In many poor countries, with each additional year of schooling, people earn 10% higher wages. These earnings, in turn, contribute to national economic growth. No country has ever achieved continuous and rapid growth without reaching a high literacy rate of at least 40%. Education supports the growth of civil society, democracy, and political stability, allowing people to learn about their rights and acquire the skills and knowledge necessary to exercise them.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
With the changing and fast paced global world, formal and class educational settings are inadequate for people to grab the content of education with which they will live in a world that has turned to technology even up to the point of education and information dissemination. Government employs every means available in educating its citizens and keeping them ahead or at least at the same pace and apprised of changes in the world. One of such media used apart from direct formal teaching for educational development is the television. Television is the most powerful medium in the electronic media. It almost succeeded in quickening the pace of development and education. It has enormous strength to attract both literates and illiterates and has equal strength in effective communication. It can be said without any hesitation that television has greater influence on society. Such a powerful medium is being used in education for teaching and learning process. America has given more importance to education is evident from the fact that more than hundreds of channels exclusively meant for education are in operation. In Nigeria, the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA), the states' television and the private television stations can reach all students within the country and beyond. But the problem associated with this sub-system is whether a separate channel will be assigned educational programmes be sandwiched with the regular existing channels. Or, to establish separate television houses for the purposes of education. Whichever alternative, disruptive problem of incessant power outages in the country will pose a limiting factor. Thus, while there is the prospect of using television to boost education in the country, there are many constraints surrounding the usage (Osuji, 1981:141; Akinyemi, 1986:96). E.g. is the “I need to Know” programme aired on AIT and other State Stations in Nigeria. This research will study the role of the television in educational development with Nigerian Television Authority Ibadan as a case study
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study is guided by the following aims:
To determine the roles of television in educational development.
To identify the features that could aid educational development.
To determine methods for motivating young people to pay attention to educative television programmes.
1.4 Research Questions
What are the roles of television in educational development in Nigeria?
What are the features of television that help it in playing this educational developmental role?
How can it be increased in the face of increasing disinterestedness of the youth in national television programmes and channels?
The study developed and formulated the following hypotheses:
H0: The television does not have a significant influence on the educational development of students.
H1: The television have a significant influence on the educational development of students.
H20: The television does not play a significant role in the educational development of students.
H21: The television plays a significant role in the educational development of students.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This research is of great significance to the producers of the Television programmes as it would help direct them towards the importance of their work to educational development of the general public. With this in mind they can better be equipped in developing the content they show on air, know the age ranges that benefits the most to their programmes and the ones that are put at a disadvantage which will consequently inform both their language of delivery and their censoring methods.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study while focusing on the Ibadan channel of the Nigerian Television Authority, bases its research on the contents which affect the young and old generation simultaneously and the ones developed with an age range and gender in mind.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
Even though, as we implied earlier that it is very easy to pinpoint the impacts and roles of television on the educational development of the masses, however it is often difficult sifting through other factors that bear upon the educational development of the masses. This is one of the challenges of this research and while it serves as a motivation for it, it has been a limitation in that it in some ways reduces the reliability of our hypothesis.
1.9 Organization of the Study
The study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the study’s introduction and gives a background to the study. Chapter two reviews related and relevant literature. The chapter three gives the research methodology while the chapter four gives the study’s analysis and interpretation of data. The study concludes with chapter five which deals on the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
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