1.1 Background of the study
Nigeria as a developing country needs people who are required for the political social and economic development of the country. This is necessary because Nigeria no longer need money bag citizens, rather she needs men and women and enough money for the peoples comfort. In order to achieve this, school or formal education for all in Nigeria is mandatory and necessary. It is not important that all Nigeria citizens get full formal education and not partial education which leads to school dropout and human wastage or attrition going by the national policy on education which recognizes hat greater achievement are get and most explanted through formal education is essential to Nigerians and so have made primary education in government schools free for its citizens. Looking at the economic problems in Nigeria today many family most especially those in the low socio economic classes engaged their children and weeds in various activities such as hawking. Hawking according to the oxford advanced learners dictionary, 6th edition, means moving to sell things by going from place to place asking people to buy them. However, Olalere (2007) identified two main types of hawkers which are; the hawkers that carry their goods in wheels and the side walk hawkers who sit with their wares beside the road. According to Olalere, the capital out lay for types of trade is determined by nature of goods traded in the hawker builds cart to suit his or her purpose. The hawker also employs different media of advertising their wares like; buy your sweet orange, the hawker may also decided to short the goods of their names in the manner peculiar and appealing to people. Many of the hawkers sell different goods, which one might not go out ordinary to buy, except on impulse basis if we come across them on the way. For the side of the hawker, they sit by their goods and attend to those who come to them. The capital required is determined by the nature of the wares for instance Five Hundred Naira N 500, would appear sufficient for a side hawker who is trading in orange while a provision seller who sells beverages would require a higher outlay. The hawker business grows increasing by in many Nigerian cities and towns. Hawking also take place in the rural areas but are mostly alone in the evenings when people are back from the farm, village markets or school. The situation is ever different in urban areas. Hawking goes on in the urban area from morning to evening on a daily basis. This situation has no doubt affected the child’s schooling specifically another important aspect of the child’s developmental stage. Ajayi and Orphan and a year two student in the department of banking and finance of the university of Benin who sells newspapers daily among the street says “we do this thing (hawking) every day in order to survive in school and to help our younger siblings at home who are not even in schools. These developments are making life unbearable form as I have always with drawn from school several times. Similarly, a child who shares the school time with street hawking is always late to school and he or she is bound to develop immaturities in school work which may include poor studying habits, lack of skills, low self esteem and low performance in class hence resulting in failure or total dropping out of school. It has been heard of that some parents in towns and cities withdrawn their children from school in order to send them hawking so as to make more money for the family up keep. In some cases, some children are always dropped out from school for a term or even a whole year and when they get back to school (that if they go back to it all) they become too big for their cohort and they fall victims of name calling by younger classmates. This type of situation could have many negative effects on the children psychologically who became under achiever or might develop school phobia. Such children at the end of the day fail or drop out at the end of day. The search for money to make ends meet in a depressed economy is obviously one of the major reasons for parent and guardians sending their children or wards to hawk. Most of the hawkers are either in primary/ secondary school for the purpose of hawking and at each day sales the children becomes weak and tired that they are unable to concentrate, contribute to discussion or study on their own. Apparently, parents and guardians do not realize this and children do not know that the means by which the mental. Moral, social and material inheritance of the society can be passed from generation to generation is through formal education.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The majority of Nigerian parents believe that children are their God sent helpers both for economic purpose and other wise. This is why many Nigerians want to have children until old age. Most average Nigerians do not consider street hawking by children and some other child labor practices are seen as part of the socialization process in the society. This brings the question to mind that, most of the parents whose children are participating in street hawking may have been street hawkers themselves in their life. Thus, the use of their wards or children as hawkers may largely reflect their value representation. In Nigeria today, hawking by children of school age is not entirely new in society. Street hawking creates room for lack of seriousness and interest in school work, poor memory, learning difficulty and under achievement the problem of this study therefore is to investigate the relationship between street hawking and drop out.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is the impact of street hawking on students academic performance in government secondary school. But for the successful completion of the study; the researcher intends to achieve the following sub-objectives;
1. To ascertain the effect of street hawking on the academic performance of Secondary School students.
2. To ascertain the difference between street hawking and academic performance of students
3. To ascertain various factors that cause street hawking
4. To ascertain the solution to street hawking
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: there is no effect of street hawking on academic performance of students
H1: there is effect of street hawking on academic performance of students
H02: there is no significant relationship between street hawking and academic performance of students
H2: there is a significant relationship between street hawking and academic performance of students.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will help to investigate one of the causes of children inability to complete their formal education in urban areas. The main aim of formal education is to prepare children for the future and to get ready for important responsibilities. It is a crystal clear that children street hawking is a distraction and an exposure of children to bad habit and more danger. From this study parents would learn importance of formal education and so give it its right position while drawing the scale of preference for their children. Similarly, parents would then set goals for their children and motivate children in their academic work so that the children would put formal education which gives self esteem, respect, prestige and good personality before money making venture. From this research, children could learn to improve on the ideas they have about themselves as this could be a motivating factor for writing formal education. It would also bring their knowledge that divided loyalty might be an hindrance to better performance in school. Divided loyalty in the sense that as a street hawker one runs after formal education partially; the student would also realize that school education prepares people to get the appropriate key to the doors of wealth. In summary, finally, this research will serve as guide to parents, teachers and even policy makers on now bets to develop children positively in order for them to become more useful in the society.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study covers the impact of street hawking on students academic performance in government secondary schools. . The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.7 DEFINTION OF TERMS
IMPACT: The action of one object coming forcibly into contact with another.
STREET HAWKING: Street hawking is the commonest form of child labor in Nigeria. Although street hawking is very pervasive, there is the increasing need to fully understand its pattern and effects on those involved in hawking particularly adolescents who combine schooling with hawking.
ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: Academic achievement or (academic) performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals.
SECONDARY SCHOOL: High school (usually grades 9–12 but sometimes 10–12, it is also called senior high school) is always considered secondary education; junior high school or middle school (6–8, 7–8, 6–9, 7–9, or other variations) are sometimes considered secondary education.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.