STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ENROLMENT OF GIRLS INTO SCIENCE SUBJECT (A CASE STUDY OF GOVERNMENT GIRLS SECONDARY SCHOOL, DOKA SENIOR, KADUNA)

STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ENROLMENT OF GIRLS INTO SCIENCE SUBJECT (A CASE STUDY OF GOVERNMENT GIRLS SECONDARY SCHOOL, DOKA SENIOR, KADUNA)

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Education is the process of providing information to an inexperience person to help him/her develop physically, mentally, socially, emotionally, spiritually, politically and economically. Therefore education is a complete process and one that requires expert handling particularly at the planning stages.  In this view, (Adesina, 1983) emphasizes that the quality of education is a function of two major factors the process of education. By process he stated the curriculum, instructional materials qualification of teachers and the general condition of learning classroom space and the learning environment are involved. By product he meant the long and short range values of the learner’s educational experience.

Education is the process through which individuals are made functional members of their society (Ocho, 2005), it is a process through which the young acquires knowledge and realizes her potentialities and uses them for self-actualization, to be useful and others. It is a means of preserving, transmitting and improving the culture of the society. In every education means acquisition of something good something worthwhile.

The girl-child is a biological female offspring from birth to eighteen 18 years of age. This is the age before one becomes young adults. This period covers the crèche nursery or early childhood (0 - 5 years) primary (6 – 12 years) and secondary school (12 – 18 years). During this period, the young child is totally under the care of the adult who may be her parents or guardians and older siblings. It is made up of infancy, childhood, early and late adolescence stage of development. During this period the girl child is malleable, builds and develops her personality and character. She is very dependent on the significant others, those on who she models her behavior, through observation, repetition and imitation. Her physical, mental, social, spiritual and emotional development start and progress to get to the peak at the young adult stage. There is an adage that says “educate a man, you educate individual, but educate a woman you educate a nation,” The above summarizes the essence of education to the girl-child and indeed, to every education human being, and so calls for special attention to be focused on education of the girl-child.  No nation afford toy with the education of her citizen especially, the child who will be the father of mother of tomorrow, (CFUA, 2009).

In Nigeria, the National literacy rate for females literacy is only 56% compared to 72% for males, although Nigeria has had a National Policy on education since 1981. It has not been implemented effectively and efficient political will, a long period of undemocratic governance and poor management of scarce resource. Women and girls have been most affected by these negative factors (UNICEF).

The barriers that affected the girls from going to school are poverty and economic issues with 70% if the populations living below poverty line, girls are often sent to generate income for families by hocking in the market or on the street. Early marriage and teenage pregnancy about 30% of school-age girls drop out of school having already begun childbearing before the age of 18. In adequate school infrastructure – classroom space, furniture and equipment are lacking many schools are in rugged and unsafe physical condition, water health and sanitation facilities, are inadequate and pupils teacher ratio are high with as many as 100 student in one class especially schools in Urban slums.

Cultural and religious biases, many Nigerian parents, especially in large families with limited resource enroot boys in schools instead of girls. Boys are given more opportunities to ask and answers questions to use learning materials and to lead groups. Girls are given less time to task than boys in primary and secondary school science classes. Teachers use corporal punishment and create an intimidating classroom environment.

Poorly qualified teachers by 1996 only 33% of all Primary School Teachers held the minimum certificate of education qualification mandated by the government in 1989. In 2001, Nigeria joined African Girls Education Institution (AGE) UNICEF together with the Nigerian Government and its partners involve in the following;

Raising national awareness on girl’s education through public awareness campaigns rallies and seminars, Building schools technical capacity to develop girl friendly school environment and helping communities to sustain girls’ education, Collaborating with government and other stakeholders in reviewing existing curriculum and teaching materials for gender sensibility, Promoting the employment for more female teacher to serve as role models and increase parents confidence that their female children will not sexual harassment in school promoting the development of pedagogical skills that will enhance the participation of girls and improve leaving outcomes.

Science might be described as an empirical research for order. It seeks to discover, describe and utilize lawful relationship among event. Science subjects include Mathematics, Biology, Chemistry, Physics etc. Science and technology have been recognized as the instrument per excellence for national development. However, (Agenta, 1982), (Akpan, 1986), (Obioha, 1987) have observed that there is a general declining trend in girls student interest, achievement in science enrolment in science and technology subjected at secondary school level, the general decline in interest, achievement and enrolment of girls student in science and technology education is a matter of serious concern to science teacher science educators, scientist and science policy makers.

However, this decline in enrolment of girls into science subject is a serious setback to girl child that is why this research will find strategies in enrolment of girls into science subjects.

Statement of the problem

The problems of turning science and technical education around in the secondary school become more daunting if one realize that about half of our national population (girls and women) are seriously marginalized in the pursuit of science and technical education against this back drop, the researcher felt necessary to find strategies for improving the enrolment of girls in science subject.

Purpose of the study

The general purpose of the study is to determine the strategies for improving the enrolment of girls into science subjects.

Specifically the study will determine.

1.     Factors leading to girls running away from science subjects

2.     Factors that motivate girls towards science subjects

3.     Instructional materials, laboratory and facilities

4.     Teachers’ qualification, in-service, seminar/worship.

5.     Science subjects curriculum.

Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated.

1.     What are the factors leading girls running away from science subjects?

2.     What are the factors that motivate girls toward science subject?

3.     Are the instructional materials, equipment and facilities presents?

4.     How qualified are the instructional teachers?

5.      What is the level of curriculum implementation in science subjects (Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics)?

Scope of the Study

This research work finds out strategies for improving the enrolment of girls in science subject at Government Girls Secondary School Doka (Snr.), Kaduna, because of law enrolment of girls into science subjects.


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