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Table of contents
Title page i
Approval page iii
Table of contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the study 1
Statement of the Problem 3
Purpose of the Study 3
Significance of the Study 4
Research Questions 4
Scope of the Study 5
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Conceptual frame works on cracks in buildings 6
General factors that could encourage cracks in buildings 8
How to Avoid Cracks in Buildings 19
How to solve cracks problems or control it 28
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
Research Design 35
Area of the Study 35
Population of the Study 36
Sampling and Sampling Techniques 36
Data Collection 37
Validation of Instrument 38
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Re-statement of the problem 45
Summary of the findings 45
Discussion of findings 46
Implication of the findings 47
Suggestion for further study 48
The study was designed to find out strategies for controlling cracks in residential building, in Babura Local Government Area of Jigawa State. Among the specific purposes of the study were determining the availability to facilities for controlling cracks in residential building, determine the methods of detecting cracks in residential building, and determining the availability of personnel for detecting cracks in residential building and also the strategies adopted to improve the control of cracks in residential building in Babura Local Government Area of Jigawa State. The study adopted description survey research design and the area of the study is Babura Local Government Area. The population of the study include 258 respondents made up of 120 building team, 50 clients, 50 engineers and 38 supervisors. The instruments for data collection a 25-item structured questionnaire designed to elicit responses to the research questions. The instrument was validated by three experts who embellished it in term of both face contact validity while the reliability coefficient of the instrument was established using test re-test which yielded the coefficient of 0.78. Data for the study were personally collected by the researchers and three trained research assistances. While mean statistics was employed to analyze relating to research questions. 1-4 Based on the findings of the studies. The following recommendations were made, government should make provision for controlling cracks in residential building with adequate tools and equipment should be fully involved in practical activities, provision for execution should be made, maintenance of workshop crack should be given more attention, guardian and counceling services should be provided in the inspectorate division in the area.
Background of the study
Modern building of engineering structure are complex and require Architect, structure are complex surveyor; good contractor and supervisors engineers, quality surveyors; good contractors and supervisors for detailed planning, safe design and efficient use of appropriate material. When these requirement are not made adequately. Failure becomes more probable? According to Evelyn (September – 2004) cracking in building elements may constitute a defect in a variety of ways. In many cases a particular creak occurrence may result in more than one type of defect. A serviceability defect and an appearance defect. And according to Shri M.M Goyal (2004) occurrence of various crack patterns in the building during construction, after completion when it is subjected to super imposed load and during service life, is a common phenomenon. A building component develops cracks whenever the stress in the components exceeds it strength. Stress in the building components such as caused by external applied forces, such as dead, live, wind or seismic leads, foundation settlement e.tc or it could be induced internally due to thermal movements, moisture changes, elastic deformation, chemical action e.t.c
The occupants of buildings have served as good tenants. Since their knowledge of the facility in many ways have made their knowledge of the research result acquired in order to check such failure from accruing. And it is important to the tenants to understand the causes of cracks, in any parts of their building e.g extension cracking of a rain forced cement concrete beam or RCC beam.
Non structural cracks – these are mostly due to internally induced stresses in building material and do not endanger safety of a building but may look unsightly. Or may create an impression of faulty work or may site a feeling of insatiability. In some situation due to penetration of moisture through them non structural cracks may spoil the internal finishes thus adding to the cost of maintenance, or corrode the reinforcement, thereby adversely affecting the stability of the structure in long run, e.g vertical crack in a long compound wall due to shrinkage or thermal movement.
Cracks may appreciably vary in width from very thin hair crack barely visible to naked eye to sapling crack. Depending upon the crack width cracks are classified as: thin crack – less than 1 mm in width, medium crack- 1 to 2mm in width, wide crack – more than 2mm in width and crazing – occurrence of closely spaced line cracks at the surface of a structure or material.
The cracks that are occur; some are of uniform width through, some are of narrow at one end gradually widening at the other, the above pattern of cracks usually are occur on the surface of plaster or rendering of the structure of building, and those patterns some are occurring on the walls. Of the building such as; straight, toothed, stepped, or ,map pattern in random type crack and the crack may be vertical or horizontal or diagonal e.t.c
Therefore, there is need for the tenants to periodically examine and critically assess the stability and ability of the structure of their buildings. Examine and critically examine and critically assess the stability and ability of the structure of their building
Statement of the Problem
Crack is a kind of universal problem of building artistic. It destroys the foundations or walls and affects the building artistic. It also destroys the foundations or reduce the durability of the structure of building.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to identify strategies for controlling cracks in Babura Local government Jigawa state. Specifically, the study:
i. Determined the causes of crack in Residential building
ii. Determined the adequacy of materials for controlling cracks in residential building.
iii. Determine the roles of the federal, state and local government in controlling cracks in the country
Significance of the Study
The extent to which the study contributed to the literature on cracks in buildings are more particularly related to professional in the building industry sectors. The study8 will also be useful to building contractors, designers of building and the society at large.
Show-etal (June 2006) maintained that a mixture or mix that is richer in cement may be necessary in order to meet the requirement of comfort ability, surface finish or long term durability
The study is of importance as it would led to better understanding of controlling cracks in residential building in Babura local Government area of Jigawa state, in order to keep the building and their controlling building cracks in various places such as: towns, and villages, and to know the materials and types of foundation to be used for a particular type of soil.
The study of the crack is of importance, because it help the builder and civil engineers to know the problem of cracks and how they can prevent them.
The following are research questions:
i. what causes cracks in residential buildings?
ii. Are there adequate materials for controlling cracks in residential building?
iii. What are the role of the federal, state and local government in controlling cracks in the country?
Scope of the Study
This research is limited to strategies of controlling racks in residential buildings in Babura Local government area in Jigawa state.
The data collection in this research is going to be done with compliance of the laid down building rulers and regulations. Therefore, this project is concerned with control of cracks, their causes, and possibly of eradicating them.
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