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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Good communication skills continue to be the foundations of learning, emotional development and socialising throughout a young person’s schooling and onward into the workplace. Young people need effective speech, language and communication skills in order to have a wide range of life choices. For most young people, communication pattern continues to develop throughout the school years and into adulthood. They develop the skills they need to solve problem, build effective relationships, negotiate and tell jokes. Hence, there is a link between parents’ and children’s communication patterns. Several recent studies found that parents with low literacy levels are less likely to help their children with reading and writing (Williams, Clemens, Oleinikova, and Tarvin, 2003; Parsons and Bynner, 2007); _ feel less confident in doing so (Williams etal.,2003); are less likely to have children who read for pleasure (Parsons andBynner, 2007); are more likely to have children with lower cognitive and communicative skills (De Coulon, Meschi and Vignoles, 2008). these links have been challenged. The context provided by parents and their consistent support might be more important than any transfer of skills [for their children’s literacy development] (Auerbach, 1989, p.171). Parental education level has an impact on young children’s communication pattern Parents’ level of education correlates with the cognitive development of babies between 12 months and 27 months of age (Roberts, Bornstein, Slater and Barrett, 1999).Despite the importance of communication, some parents education has in one way or the other influenced their children communication pattern. Parental education has a significant influence on children's communication pattern well into adolescence and adulthood. parents continue to be a vital source of support socially and emotionally as well as academically. Parents often have different views of young people’s communication strengths and needs because of their knowledge of them over time, so maintaining an effective relationship between home and school is important. However this is often difficult when, typically, contact with school becomes less as pupils move through primary school. The home is crucial. Parents have the greatest influence on the achievement of young people through supporting their learning in the home rather than supporting activities in school. Early intervention is vital. The earlier parents become involved in their children’s literacy practices, the more profound the results and the longer-lasting the effects. Children learn long before they enter formal education. Parents are a child’s first educator. A child’s family and home environment has a strong influence on his/her communication pattern and educational achievement. This influence is stronger during the child’s early years but continues throughout their school years. Parents reading to babies and young children has a strong impact on children’s communication pattern. Parents’ reading to their children in the pre-school years is regarded as an important predictor of literacy achievement (Weinberger, 1996). Hence an uneducated parent may not be able to read to their children. This parental activity is associated with strong evidence of benefits for children such as communication growth, reading achievement and writing (Bus, Van Ijzendoorn and Pellegrini, 1995; Brooks, 2000), the enhancement of children's language comprehension and expressive language skills, listening and speaking skills, later enjoyment of books and reading, understanding narrative and story (Wells, 1987; Crain-Thoreson and Dale, 1992; Weinberger, 1996).
Parental involvement in their child’s reading has been found to be the most important determinant of language and emergent literacy (Bus, Van Ijzendoorn and Pellegrini, 1995). Children who are read to at an early age tend to display greater interest in reading at a later age (Arnold and Whitehurst, 1994). Story reading at home enhances children's language comprehension and expressive language skills (Crain-Thoreson and Dale, 1992). Oral language developed from parent/child reading predicts later writing development (Crain-Thoreson, Bloomfield, Anthony, Bacon, Phillips and Samwel,1999)
Parents who introduce their babies to books give them a head start in school and an advantage over their peers throughout primary school (Wade and Moore, 2000). Many background variables affect the impact of the family and home environment (such as socio-economic status, , family size, etc.) but parental attitudes and behaviour, especially parental education in home learning activities, can be crucial to children’s achievement and can overcome the influences of other factors. Put succinctly in a question form, the problem of this study is: what is the influence of parent’s education on communication pattern of primary school student in Lagos metropolis
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Primary school students’ life is no doubt a time for speech and language development, hence, communication pattern should be of paramount interest to both parents of the children and their teacher. In many circumstances now, the primary school students in Nigeria fail to understand the need for good communication pattern and parents and has failed also to sensitize the primary school children on the need for proper communication pattern. Schools also has failed to integrate communication pattern as part of curriculum of primary schools in Nigeria. Hence ignoring the need and the roles good communication pattern to a child even through his/her career in adulthood.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The general purpose of the study is to investigate the influence of parent education on communication patterns of public primary school students of Lagos metropolis.
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
Specifically, the study sought to:
1. Determine the influence of parental education on their children’s' communication pattern
2. Ascertain the difference in communication patterns between children that are read to by parents and their peers that are not read to.
3. Determine the influence of parent-child communication patterns on the in-school children’ academic achievement.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In order to realize the above objectives, the following research questions were raised.
1. To what extent do parental education influence children's communication pattern?
2. What is the difference between the communication pattern of children that are read to by parents and their peers that are not?
3. What is the influence of parent-child communication patterns on their primaryschoolchildren’academicachievement?
1. There is no significant difference between parents’ education and children communication pattern.
2. There is no significant difference between communication pattern of children that are read to and their peers that are not.
3. There is no significant difference between parent-child communication pattern and their primary school children academic achievement.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study has theoretical significance as it lends credence to Albert Bandura’s social learning theory which sees human relationship as a basic unit of learning through observation, imitation and modelling. Parents and significant others in the child’s social life should therefore realize that the child learns more through observation and modelling. This study helps to endorse the parents’ education as it influences children communication pattern.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
This study is carried out Kosofe local government in Lagos metropolis, which is located in South West region of Nigeria in West Africa. The study will be limited to primary 5 pupils in selected schools in Kosofe local government.
1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS:
1. Parents: A person who is a father or mother : a person who has a child.
2. Education: The process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, especially at a school or university. An enlightening experience.
3. Parental education: The process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, especially at a school or university by parents.
4. Communication: Communication means transferring messages from one to another and it has several forms such as intrapersonal, interpersonal, group and mass communication. It is also the act or an instance of communicating; the imparting or exchange of information, ideas, or feelings.
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