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1.0     General Introduction

Ch ild abuse is the physical, sexual or emotional, mal-treatment, or neglect of children by parent, guardians or others responsible for a child’s welfare, Physical abuse is characterized by physical injury usually inflicted as a result of beating or appropriately harsh discipline. Sexual abuse includes molestion, incest, rape, prostitution or the use of a child for pornographic purpose. Neglect can be physical, in nature (abandonment, failing to see that a child is attending school) or emotional (abuse of a spouse or another child in the child’s presence. Allowing a child to witness adult substance abuse). In appropriate punishment, verbal abuse and scapegoating are also forms of emotional, or psychological child abuse.

Some authorities consider parental action of cigarette smoke (see smoking).

In praches, there are borderline area as where, what constitutes child abuse is not clear. For example, the U.S Supreme Court has ruled (1944) that parents do not have an absolute right to deny life-saving medical treatment to their children but devout members of the Church of Christ, Scientist and other church believers believes in the healing power of prayer and do not always seek medical help. Most U.S States however, permit parents to use religious beliefs as a defense against persecution for the with-holding of medical treatment from their sick children, even in cases where the lack of treatment, results in a child’s health.

Child abuse is where a parent or care giver whether through action or failing to act causes injury, death, emotional, harm or risk of serious harm to a child. There are many forms of child mal-treatment, including neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, exploitation and emotional abuse.

Child abuse or child mal-treatment is physical, sexual or psychological mistreatment, or neglect of a child or children especially of a parent or other care-giver. It may include any act or failure to act by a parent or other care-giver that refuse. Its an actual or potential harm to a child and can occur in a child’s home or in the organization, school or communities the interact with.

Child abuse is defined in the children, young person and their families act as the harming (whether physical, emotionally or sexually) ill-treatment. Abuse, neglect or deprivation of any child or young person it includes:-

Child abuse is any action by another person, adult or child that causes significant harm to a child. It can be physical, sexual or emotional, but can just as often be about a lack of love care and attention. We know that neglect whatever form it takes, can be just as damaging to a child as physical abuse.

An abused child will often experience more than one type of abuse as well as other difficulties in their lives. It often happens over a period of time rather than being a one-off event and it can increasing by happen online.

We estimate that over half a million children are abused in the U.K each year.

1.2     Statement of Problem    

A problem statement is the description of an issue currently existing which need to be addressed. It provides the context for the research study and generates the questions which the research aim to answer. The statement of the problem statement is just one sentence (with several paragraphs of Borahon) for example, It could be the frequency of job lay offs is creating fear,  anxiety and loss of productivity in middle management worker.

While this problem statement is just one sentence, it should be accompanied by a few paragraphs that elaborate on the problem. The paragraph could cover present persuasive argument that makes the problem important sough to study. The child include the opinions of

A Problem Statement:- is a brief description of the issues that need to be addressed by a problem solving team and should be presented to them (or created by them). Before they try to solve a problem on the other hand, a statement of the problem is a claim of one or two sentences in length that the problem should be briefly addressed in question. What is the problem that research will address when bringing together a team to achieve a particular purpose they would be provided with.

A problem statement expresses the word that will be used to keep the effort focused and it should represent a solvable problem.

A problem statement is a clear, concise description of the issue (S) that need (S) to be addressed by a problem solving team. It is used to center and focus the team at the beginning and help to keep the team on track during the effort, and used to validate that the effort delivered is an out come that solves the problem statement. It has a specific form.

A problem statement is basically a statement that illustrates a clear vision and the overall method that will be used to solve the problem at hand, usually used to when doing research.

It discussed the reasonable tangible or intangible problem that the researcher may face throughout the time of the project.

A project statement is a description of a difficulty or lack that need to be solved or at least researched to see whether a solution can be found. It can also be described as either a gap between the real and the desired or a contradiction between principle and practice.

1.3     Purpose of the Study          

Purpose of the study states the objective of the research and which appropriates any hypothesis you have developed for the research.

The purpose of the study statement helps the object access the importance of the study relative to individual values. The statement should include not only the immediate purpose of the study. Portion of the consent form should not reflect a potential benefit to the subject or be directed towards. The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of exercise A – exercise B as a method that can be used to increase quadriceps muscles is acceptable. However, a statement the effectiveness of exercise A to exercise B as a method that can be used to increased your quadriceps muscles is unacceptable.

If the study involves deception or the with-holding of information as a necessary and justifiable research strategy. The purpose of the study statement should be written in such a way where by the least possible deception and/or with-holding of information occurs.

1.4     Importance of the Study

·        It provides a wider range of related information on causative factor of child abuse

·        It shall provide information based on the factors and how to tackle these problems

·        It will specifically explain the role of parent in child care

·        The study shall be beneficiary to the parent and general public especially in people of Kaduna metropolis area of Kaduna state where the study rescued.

·        Educate parent on the need to have a safe environment especially when children are left alone.

·        The laws pertaining to reporting of cases of child abuse and there should be amends and strengthening in order to protect the interest of the victims.

·        Law with regard to child abuse should be amended to give and official status to the case conference.

·        Establish special unit in major cities in the country managed by trained staff to access and manage the emotional, disturbance of the abused children.

·        System should be developed to closely monitor the progress make on all aspects concerning a case of child abuse treatment, rehabilitation and legal process.

·        A doctor from the nearest government hospital should visit all children homes in that area on a regular basis to ensure the well being of the in mates.

1.5     Research Questions

1.     Do you agree that families are responsible for child abuse?

2.     Do you agree that teaching religion is responsible for child abuse?

3.     Do you agree that parent are responsible for child abuse?

4.     Do you agree that atheists is responsible for child abuse?

5.     Do you agree that society is responsible for child abuse?

6.     Do you agree that poverty is responsible for child abuse?

1.6     Hypothesis/Assumption

Hypotheses and assumption are concepts that are similar in nature and are used commonly in research and experiment. A hypothesis is a theory that seeks to explain a phenomenon or a set of phenomena.

Scientists or research make up hypothesis to see if they hold water when they conduct a number of experiment.

Hypothesis:- Some that has not been proved to classify as a theory but believed to be true by the researcher is labeled as a hypothesis.

Assumption:- Making assumption on the basis of looks and appearance of a person is common. We take for granted the qualities in a person on the basis of his skin color, hair color, and physique – we take for granted qualities that are mere assumption and no more.

1.7     Scope or Delimitation of the Study

It is important to provide the devastating effect of child abuse and neglect because the only way we hear about it in the media are the staggering, statistic about physical illnesses in all their forms. This series provided a broad over view of what millions of children and adults have to cope with because of parental care taker abuse.

One in four girls and one in six boys will be sexually assaulted before the age of eighteen.

From 1976, when the first national figure for child maltreatment were generated to 1990 the most recent year covered by the national child abuse and neglect data system report of maltreatment have grown from 16.033 per year (affecting 667,000 children) to 1,700,000 per year (affecting 2,712,917, children) NCCAN,1980, 1980, 1992 prominent groups such as a the U.S advisory board for child abuse and neglect, have tabled the increase in reported cases an “Spidemin” of child maltreatment in the united state, calling the problem of child abuse and neglect a national emergency. (US) advisory board on child abuse and neglect (1990) the alarming rise in the number of responded cases of child maltreatment is significant development out the full dimension of its meaning are not yet clear.

1.8     Operation Definition of Terms

Child abuse is when a parent or care-giver whether through action of failing to act, causes injury, dream, emotional harm or risk of serious harm to a child. There are many forms of child maltreatment, including neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, exploitation and emotional abuse.

Emotional abuse:- Abuse or maltreatment also known as psychological abuse or maltreatment is the most common form of child abuse.

Neglect:- Can be defined as any serious act or omission by a person havi

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