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1.1 Background of the Study.
Education is a preparation for life. This is related to the acquisition of skills to earn a living. Today as always, the definition of education is the ever change and increasing in scope. Our schools are confronted with new pressures arising from changing needs with students; societal expectation, economic changes and technological advancement are to look into.
Nevertheless, if education program is to be planned and if efforts for continued improvement are to be made, it is very necessary to have some conception the goal that are being aimed at these educational objectives become a criteria by which material are selected, content is outline instructional procedures are developed and human resources are also considered
Education, according to coombs (1996) consists of two components. He classified these two components into inputs and output. According to him, inputs consist of human and materials resource and output are the goals and outcome of the educational process. Both whole and if one wants to investigate and assess the education system in order to improve it’s performance, effects of one component on the other must be examined. Instructional materials which are educational input are of vital importance to the teaching of any subject in the school curriculum. Wales (1998) was of the opinion that the use of instructional materials would make discovered facts glued firmly to the memory of students. Savoury (1999) also added that, a well planned and imaginative use of visual aids in lessons should do much to bearish apathy, supplement inadequacy of books as well as arouse student interest by giving them something practical to see and touch, at the sometime helping to train them to think things out themselves.
School environment has been described as an organization where material are produced, managed and organized in such a way that enables the students to acquire desirable learning competericies. The process of managing and organizing materials in teaching brings about fruitful learning since it stimulates students sense as well as motivation them. Denyer (1998), in his study on science games in National curriculums in the united kingdom reported that games when used as a material enables lass able children to stay on task and remain motivated for longer period.
There are varieties of materials which the Biology. These materials are models, charts, preserved specimens of plants and animals, culturing equipment and microscope (Olagunju, 2000). The materials should be provided in quality and quantity in classroom for effective teaching-learning process (Umeoduagu, 2000). Nwoji, (1999) in an empirical study, revealed that essential facilities such as equipment like radio, television, computers, chemicals, specimens, videos tape, stave, Bunsen burners, models and charts are not available in schools. This inadequacy of teaching materials, laboratory, space, has been of serious concern to educators.
The decline in performance in science Technology and Mathematics (STM) may be unconnected with poor learning environment created by this state of infrastructural facilities (Fabayo, 1998 and Farombi, 1998). Mapaderun (2002) and Oni (1995) also emphasized that the availability and adequacy of these facilities promote effects teaching and leaning activities in schools while their in adequacy affects the academic have performance negatively. Several efforts have been extended by science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN) to train secondary school teachers on improvisation techniques in various on science subject including Biology, hence there is need to valuable how far teachers have been able to improvise instructional material for effective teaching.
1.2 Statement of Problem.
The relevance of education in any society cannot be understated. It is regarded as the single potent factor that leads to the improvement of the individual as well as society. The need to provide basic formal education to all schools whether public or private sector in Enugu North local Government Area is therefore a paramount social responsibility. The question of how credible the students, teachers education programmed is in terms of effectiveness and appropriateness of instructional materials has remained a major issue of interest to many people in Enugu state and environs.
The quality of instruction, teachers, and equipment in Biology are usually considered sub-standard, in adequate equipment and lack of teachers contribute to the poor teaching of Biology education. Many schools do not have Biology laboratory and teachers are often unqualified. Research has shown that poor perception over the production of instruction materials in schools, low level of utilization of these materials, Non challant attitude of teachers towards improvisation of materials, poor funding, lack of equipment, laboratories are major causes of poor educational materials (resources) in the impermanent of Biology education programmed. For leaning to be meaningful and permanent, it is necessary that instructional materials be used. Therefore this study has the problem of finding the impact of instructional materials in teaching and learning Biology.
1.3 OBJECTIES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this study are:
i. To examine the influence of instructional material utilisation on the teaching of Biology in Senior Secondary Schools in Lagos State;
ii. To ascertain the extent to which Senior Secondary School student’s learning of Biology can be influenced by the use of instructional materials
iii. To determine whether there will be any difference in the academic performance of secondary schools students in Biology due to the use of instructional materials.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In order to achieve the objectives of this study, the following research questions were raised to guide the investigation:
i. Will the use of instructional materials influence the teaching and application of Biology in senior secondary schools?
ii. To what extent can senior secondary school students’ learning of Biology be influenced by the use of instructional materials?
iii. Will there be any difference in the academic performance of senior secondary school students in Biology due to the use of instructional materials?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following null hypotheses were stated for the study.
i. The use of instructional materials will not have significant influence on the teaching of Biology in senior secondary schools.
ii. The use of instructional material will not have significant influence on secondary school students’ learning of Biology.
iii. There will be no significant difference in the performance of students in Biology due to the use of instructional materials.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The use of instructional materials gives the learner opportunity to touch, smell or taste objects in the teaching and learning process. Consequently, knowledge passed unto the students at different levels of educational instructions should be well planned and properly allied with relevant instructional materials for clarity and comprehensibility. Hence the significance of this study to the students, teachers, curriculum planners, educational system and the society at large.
To the students, the effective use of instructional materials would enable them to effectively learn and retain what they have learnt and thereby advancing their performance in the subject in question. This is because according to Nwadinigwe (2000), learning is a process through which knowledge, skills, habits, facts, ideas and principles are acquired, retained and utilized; and the only means of achieving this is through the use of instructional materials.
The study would help enhance teachers’ teaching effectiveness and productivity. This is in line with assertion of Ekwueme and Igwe (2001) who noted that it is only the teachers who will guarantee effective and adequate usage of instructional materials and thereby facilitate success. Consequently a teacher who makes use of appropriate instructional materials to supplement his teaching will help enhance students’ innovative and creative thinking as well as help them become plausibly spontaneous and enthusiastic. Oremeji (2002) supportively asserts that any teacher who takes advantage of these resources and learns to use them correctly will find that they make almost an incalculable contribution to instruction. He further says that instructional materials are of high value in importing information, clarifying difficult and abstract concepts, stimulating thought, sharpening observation, creating interest and satisfying individual difference.
The study is also significant to the educational system and society at large. This is because when teachers solidify their teaching with instructional materials and the learners learn effectively, the knowledge acquired will reflect in the society positively. Students will be able to understand the functioning of the economy, interpret government’s economic policies and activity and perform economically better in the choice of life and work.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is focused on investigating the effect of instructional material utilisation on advancing senior secondary school students’ performance in Biology in Lagos State. Due to time and financial constraints, the study is limited to Kosofe Local Government Area of Lagos. This is because the researcher resides in this local government area and as such had the opportunity of having a comprehensive knowledge of the area and its environs. Besides, the study involves only the S.S-2 students of the senior secondary schools in Kosofe Local Government Area of Lagos State.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
The only limitation faced by the researcher in the course of carrying out this study was the delay in getting data from the various respondents. Most respondents were reluctant in filling questionnaires administered to them due to their busy schedules and nature of their work. The researcher found it difficult to collect responses from the various respondents, and this almost hampered the success of this study.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The relevant terms below were operationally defined relative to their usage in this study.
§ Effect: This is the change (outcome) that is brought about in a person (s) or something by another person (s) or thing; that is the way in which an event, action or person changes someone or something.
§ Academic performance: This is regarded as the display of knowledge attained or skills, shown in the school subjects such achievements are indicated by test scores or by marks assigned by teachers. It is the school evaluation of students’ classroom work as quantified on the basis of marks or grades.
§ Utilisation: The act of using something to achieve a purpose
§ Instructional Material: What the teacher uses to make the lesson more interesting and understandable.
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