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1.1 Background of the study
Developments in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have been making a great impact on almost every aspect of human sectors, thus technology is challenging and re-directing human lives. To a large extent, Information Technologies (IT) is a dramatic influence in the education arena (Groves &Zemel, 2000; Khorrami-Arani, 2001). In view of the demands of the labour-market, institutions of higher learning in developing countries such as Nigeria are striving towards making institutions’ environments ICT compliant to gain more effectiveness in the teaching and learning process. Sam, Othman, and Nordin (2005) note recent trends in instructional process witness immeasurable alteration and transformation by the emergence of an avalanche of computer technology innovations.
Sax, Astin, Korn and Mahoney (1998) cited in Sam, Othman, and Nordin (2005) pointed that computer technologies have become students’ inevitable tool for assignments, study notes, accomplishing self-organised tutorials, research project data processing as well as easy and fast means of communication. The use of IT for teaching and learning at all levels of educations is becoming the order of the day in Nigeria. In line with the National Policy on Education (NPE), undergraduates in Nigerian universities’ faculty of education are primarily groomed to teach and cope with the instructional challenges in secondary school education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2005). Radical technology growth and its infusion into the education system necessitate the expediency for undergraduates to have a relatively high degree of computer proficiency that will meet the needs of students when they eventually find themselves in the classrooms (Stout and Lee, 2004). In computer related courses such as Computer Graphics (CG), it is expected that students possess a wide range of computer proficiency for academic excellence.
Computer Graphics is an evolving technology. Recent advances in computer technology have expanded the scope of graphics applications in the education sector (Nzeako, 1989). CG has become one of the exciting growing fields in the computer revolution as it finds its way into the education industry. CG is almost taking over the traditional method of instructional materials production (Ekhami, 2007; Nzeako, 1989). Computer Graphics is an exposure to artistic and computer skills needed to successfully stand-out in the field of digital arts. Amongst its features are: video games/entertainment software, paint system, Computer Assisted Design, animation and television, advertising, and multimedia instruction. CG enhances the technical capacity of computer education students. It also helps them to build the right attitude towards understanding and appreciating the visual qualities of visual aids produced via computers. Undoubtedly, qualitative visual presentation holds a degree of sensible face validity in instructional process (Eber& Wolfe, 2000). Meanwhile, Smith (2001b) and Torkzadeh and Dwyer (1994) opined that student’s level of interaction with computers is sometimes dependent on variables like gender, self-efficacy, self-concept, computer anxiety, computer confidence, and computer experience.Kinzie, Delcourt, and Powers  defined self-efficacy as an individual’s belief in his or her ability, which may impact the performance of tasks: “Self-efficacy reflects an individual’s belief in his/her ability to perform the behavior required to produce specific outcome and it’s thought to directly impact the choice to engage in a task, as well as the effort that will be expended and the persistence that will be exhibited.” Self-efficacy has been shown to influence choice of whether to engage in a task, the effort expended in performing it, and the persistence shown in accomplishing it [Bouffard-Bouchard, 1990]. Also Brown  cautioned that self-efficacy is not the same as actual knowledge of a task or with self-esteem, which actually refers more to feelings of self-worth, but one which is situational and which highly influences people’s decision, goals, the amount if time they persevere through obstacles and difficultiesIndividuals who perceive themselves capable of performing certain tasks or activities are defined as high in self-efficacy and are more likely to attempt and execute these tasks and activities. People who perceive themselves as less capable are less likely to attempt and execute these tasks and activities, and are accordingly defined as lower in self-efficacy [Barling& Beattie, 1983; Bandura, Adams, & Beyer, 1977 in Karsten and Roth, 1998]. Self-efficacy has been suggested to be an important factor in the acquisition of computing skills [Miura,1987]. Computer self-efficacy is a belief of one’s capability to use the computer [Compeau& Higgins, 1995] such that participants with little belief in their ability to use computers might perform more poorly on computer-based tasks whereas better computer self-efficacy could increase persistence and success in studying computing [Sam, Othman and Nordin, 2005] and carrying out computer-based tasks. Khorrami-Arani  highlighted several researches which demonstrated the impact that computer selfefficacy may have on increasing performance and the technological innovation of employees, reducing computer induced anxiety, and promoting higher occupational positions. Research has focused on the relationship of a number of individual and situational variables to computer self efficacy. The relationship of gender to computer self efficacy has been of regular interest, since gender differences in self-efficacy have been investigated [Murphy, Coover and Owen, 1989], but findings have been mixed, for instance, Harrison &Ranier  found that males demonstrated higher computer self-efficacy than females but Smith  found no gender differences on a measure of computer task self-efficacy among university students enrolled in an introductory computer science course, also in a study examining graduate students, adult vocational students, and professionals [nurses] in three different computer training settings [Murphy et al., 1989]. Also the relationship of computer experience to computer self-efficacy has been investigated but no research has been found to determine the relationship between computer self-efficacy, computer anxiety and students’ attitude to the use of computers.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Self-efficacy has been shown to influence choice of whether to engage in a task, the effort expended in performing it, and the persistence shown in accomplishing it Bouffard-Bouchard, 1990. Also Brown  cautioned that self-efficacy is not the same as actual knowledge of a task or with self-esteem, which actually refers more to feelings of self-worth, but one which is situational and which highly influences people’s decision, goals, the amount if time they persevere through obstacles and difficulties, There is no denying the fact that the world itself is becoming technologically based, from education to business. In this information and technology age, job requirements are changing and employees need to develop skills and competencies required by the job market (Nsiah-Gyabaah, 2011). Senzige and Sarukesi (2001) contend that the global economy is becoming a network and knowledge-based economy and that the knowledge gaps contribute to the economic gaps. To them, it is the introduction of ICT education in schools that will help reduce these gaps. It is in view of this that the researcher intends to investigate ICT self-efficacy of teachers as a determinant to junior secondary school performance.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the study is to determine ICT self-efficacy of teachers as a determinant to junior secondary school performance in computer science. But to aid the completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following sub-objective;
i) To investigate the effect of self-efficacy on teachers performance in teaching computer
ii) To investigate the relationship between ICT self-efficacy ofteachers and student academic performance in computer science
iii) To ascertain the impact of teachers efficacy on ICT on the student academic achievement
iv) To ascertain the role of ICT in the teaching and learning of computer
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
To aid the completion of the study the following research hypotheses were formulated the following research hypotheses
H0:self-efficacy has no effect on teacher’s performance in teaching of computer in secondary school
H1: self-efficacy has significant effect on teachers performance in teaching of computer in secondary school.
H02:there is no significant relationship between teachers ICT self-efficacy and student academic achievement in computer science
H2:there is a significant relationship between teachers ICT self-efficacy and student academic achievement in computer science.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is believed that at the completion of the study the findings will be of great importance to all computer science teachers as the study seek to stress the importance of self-efficacy of teachers on student attitude to learning of computer science in junior secondary school in victoria island district of Lagos state. The study will also be of great importance to the student of computer science as the will able to emulate their teachers self efficacy in computer science.. The study will also be of great importance to student who intend to embark on a study in similar topic as the findings of the study will serve as a pathfinder to them. Finally the study will be of great importance to students, teachers and the general public as the finding will add to the pool of existing literature
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers ICT self-efficacy of teachers as a determinant to junior secondary school student performance in computer studies, though in the cause of the studies there are some factors which limited the scope of the study;
a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.
b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) FINANCE: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Information and communication technology (ICT) is an extended term for information technology (IT) which stresses the role of unified communications. The term ICT is also used to refer to the convergence of audio-visual and telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system.
Psychologist Albert Bandura has defined self-efficacyas one's belief in one's ability to succeed in specific situations or accomplish a task. One's sense of self-efficacy can play a major role in how one approaches goals, tasks, and challenges
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, and directed research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators, but learners may also educate themselves. Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc. Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter. Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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