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1.1 Background of the study
Career choice has become a complex science with the advent of information technology, the emergence of post industrial revolution and job competition. It was a common practice in the old days to find feudalism converting it into a family affair where the son of a blacksmith was destined to become a blacksmith and a feudal was born a leader. Industrialization and post industrialization has made it possible for a common person to be richer as long as she or he has due skills and knowledge (Wattles, 2009). Today, one has not only to make due career planning but also exhaustive career research before making a career choice so as to adjust with the evolving socio-economic conditions (Wattles, 2009). Most of students who are secondary schools do not have accurate information about occupational opportunities to help them make appropriate career choice. According to Kerka (2000), career choice is influenced by multiple factors including personality, interests, self concept, cultural identity, globalization, socialization, role model, social support and available resources such as information and financial. Bandura et al (2001) state that each individual undertaking the process is influenced by several factors including the context in which they live in, their personal aptitudes, social contacts and educational attainment. According to Hewitt (2010), factors influencing career choice can either be intrinsic or extrinsic or both. Hewitt further states that most people are influenced by careers that their parents favour, others follow the careers that their educational choices have opened for them, some choose to follow their passion regardless of how much or little it will make them while others choose the careers that give high income. Students perception of being suitable for particular jobs also has been found to be influenced by a number of factors including ethnic background, year in school, level of achievement, choice of science subjects, attitudes and differences in job characteristics (McQuaid and Bond, 2003).Career plays a very fundamental and significant role in the life of the individual not only because they determine the pattern of income but also because they affect the individual personality and concepts in life. Career therefore is a choose pursuit, life work or success in one's profession, it is the sequence of major position occupied by a person throughout his lifetime. In a nutshell, career is the totality of work one does in his life time and are person concerned. It is therefore a positive thing for one to think as far as possible as it is enduring. Career choice is something very hard to enter especially as ones life will depend on it.
Her (1973) thus indicate that career is the totality of experience through which one learn about and prepare to engage in work as part of his way of living. PietropesaandSplete(1975) Stress career is an enjoying process that occurs over the life span and includes homes, schools and community. Every human being needs to do one job or the other to help contribute his quote to the development of the country.
In a study by Perrone et al., (2001) on role model influence on the career decisiveness of college students, it was found that role model supportiveness, and quality of relationship contributed to the career choice of students. The same study indicated that majority of the students selected same gender role models. Research on the role of spirituality and religion in career development although limited in scope has suggested that such factors relate positively to desirable career development outcomes such as career decisions. For many people with spiritual or religious commitment faith plays a critical role in the career decision making process. (Duffy and Dick 2009). A Study on career choice in Ethiopia by Stebleton (2007) indicated that the students had an external locus of control and believes that there are numerous external factors which influence their career choices. These external factors include; political and economic considerations, previous work experience and the influence of key individuals in a person’s life.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
In the course of choice of courses to read in the senior secondary schools and universities, a lot of influencing actions or decisions. These general determinates of their choices at this crucial. Parents influences, peer group, intellectual ability, financial background, goal of life, etc come into play with varying degrees of weight on them. T hereare many problems which directly or indirectly influence the senior secondary school. Where they have been studying all the school subjects together with out any differentiation between care subject and optional subjects or between science and arts subjects, they are faced with choosing areas of specialization whether science or Arts. This is the beginning of their career choice problems. It becomes obvious that arts students can never again think of pursuing science, engineering courses or medicine in the universities, neither will science students think of pursuing courses in arts leading to bachelor of arts degree ni the universities. Thing start to all apart from there.
PURPOSE OF STUDY
The main purpose of this study is the attempt to find out the factors affecting the choice of career among students in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. It will also examine to what extent the factors affecting the choice of career will aid the students positively or at times negatively.
- What are the possible causes of factors affecting the choice of career among secondary school students in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State?
- To what extent has private sector actually affect the choice of career among secondary school students.
- What is actually the contribution of both private and public secondary school on the choice of career of secondary school students?
SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The importance of this researcher work is to find to what extent the influences of the parent will affect the student choice of career and the attendance performance of students on the subject that would heard them successfully toward this occupation or job as a life span endeavour.
1. It will enable the research give recommendations to the parents about their children’s response to the advice five to them.
2. It will enable the researcher make concrete recommendations to the government about the choice of career among students especially now that the rate of unemployment is high.
3. It will enable the researcher to make recommendation to school administrators.
4. The findings will also enable the researcher made recommendations for further research on the issue of career prospects.
SCOPE/ DELIMITATION OF STUDY
This research study is limited to the students in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. This research work cover four randomly selected secondary school in Oredo local government area of Edo State. Four of which are public and one is private.
1. Army day secondary school, Ikpoba Hill barracks
2. Immaculate Conception College
3. Idogbo Grammar School Idogbo
4. Queen Ede Secondary School, Ikpoba Hill
5. Henson demonstration Group of School, Iwogban Quarters.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The research study took time involving movement from one place to another together information; it was time consuming and boring straining of metal capacity sleeplessness etc. the financial embodiment is enormous in terms of transportation materials, etc seeking of information from one institution to another was a huge task.
The research work actually impeded my homework in an attempt to give more consideration to school work.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
CAREER - A chosen pursuit or course of business activity or enterprise, especially one's professional life or employment that offers advancement and honour.
AFFECT – To produce a change in somebody or something.
INFLUENCE- The power that somebody or something has a mark somebody or something behind a particular way of the influence a parents on choice of career of their children.
PROSPECT: The chances of being successful good job/employment/career prospect.
SCHOOL: The school is a place where children need to be educated. The process of learning in a school; the time during your life when you go to school.
EXAMINATION – A formal written spoken or practical test, especially at school or colleges to see how much you know about a subject or what you can do to take an exam (forma) to sit for an exam to pass so fat an exam.
Career choice is selecting a particular occupation from a group of available alternative, which forms the total, pattern or jobs held during a lifetime. According to Shertzer (1966) parental attitude are extremely influential in a students desire to attend higher institutions (post secondary institutions). He notes that family background acts as a barrier in the following major ways namely:
a. The family inability to finance expensive schooling this is based mainly on economic consideration.
b. Psychological factor, resting on value of schooling at different socio-economic levels.
c. Others include family traditions neighborhood of parents and the occupation of the student’s father.
These are aspect of the influence of career. The factors of parents is strongly supported by Oladele (1987) who says that parents can affect ones choice of career by not giving their child the needed education to enable him go into the career which he had planned for thereby forcing the child to go into the career that they want him to choose. If the child refuses to go into such a career preferred by the parents this could lead to the parent’s refusal to pay for the child’s education.
The influence of parents in their children’s choice of occupation is highly supported by Eduwen (2003) who said that parents play a vital role in influencing the choice of an occupation for their children. He made reference to Olayinka (1983) who said that parents sat up ohayiuka worthy of emulation for their children to achieve the influence of parents occurs through various channels that related to socio-economic status, size of the family, religion and the type of career engaged in by the father and mother. From the foregoing findings and opinions of researcher, there is a very suggestion that parents have strong influence in determining the choice of career by their children. Another determinant factor which prominently features in literature is the influence of peer group in student’s choice of career. In could (1970:61) in a symposium organized on sociological theory and sociological review, it was revealed that peer groups become more and more resistive to adults and parental suggestions and become increasingly in different to adult approval and disapproval of peers become progressively the most influential force. Motivating students conduct these efforts of the peer group are all directed at appearing alike, behaving alike, and doing what every one in the group does. In short the example given in the above statement could be applied here. A parent might want his child to read medicine for one reason or another. This could be that because the father is a medical doctor, he wants the profession to continue to remain in the family. At first, the child agrees but later on after consultation with his peers, mind and disagrees with his parents. This is because he has been influenced but his best friend who is of his peer group who is reading law and so he decides to read law too. This is due to the fact that there is more frequency of interaction between the child and his peer than between him and his parents. The factor of peer group is highly supported by Eduwen (2003) who says that the preference of an individual in a group for a given occupation can influence his peers having the same occupation in order to foster the group relationship and their personal survival.
So per group is a major factor affecting choice of career among youth. Another major determinant factor that influence career choice is nature. This is family influence from rearing practices and socio-economic levels which appears to affect occupational choice. This is confirmed by Warts (1968) who suggested that certain groups of occupational success is physical sciences and medicines are inherited. In this case, nurture may be more important than nature in the individuals ultimate choice of occupation for example in a family, where the father and mother are doctors their children will like to imitate them by reading medicine ion the negative part of it, for example in teaching profession, most of the children from teachers families do not like to take up teaching profession. They prefer other occupations that command prestige or which enable them interact with people of high social status. This may be because teachers are not treated with enough respect in their society. Some children are nurtured in families that place much value on wealth or money such children are influenced by such value orientation of choosing careers, which yield quick materials wealth. So nurture is a strong factor affecting choice of career among youths. Another factor that determines career choice. A child who attends a teachers college has already been prepared to go into the teaching profession whereas a child who attends a grammar school with Arts and Social Science facilities has many alternatives career choices.
Similarly according to Eduwen (2003) the nature of school attended by the individual influences his choice of career in the future. The influence of schooling is manifested in curriculum offering and subsequent choice of an occupation. Both authors cite instances that students that attended a teacher training institution will normally enter into the teaching profession while another students that went into medical school will enter into the medical profession. From the view of the two writers stated above, one can say that the nature of school a student has attended prepares him/her to take up only the profession for which he/she has been trained. On the other hand if a students attend a secondary school, this opens many career opportunities for him or her. The nature of secondary school a student attends coupled with his or her intellectual ability will determine his career choice from the wide opportunities open to him or her. He or she is not limited to only one course until he or she is able to take final decision career choice. Therefore, the type of school which a student attends whether teacher institution, technical college,. Grammar school or commercial colleges to a great extent determine the career, which he or she will choose or follow in life. Another factor that determines the career choice is formation according to Iwuoma (1999) it is designed to provide students with greater knowledge of educational vocational and social opportunities in the locating or beyond so that they may make better choices and decision in an increasing complex society.
Similarly ZerranRicco (1962) who see information services as the assistance given to a students to understand, accept and utilize his abilities, aptitude, interest and attitudinal patterns in relation to his aspirations. Invariably, it is designed to help each students adjust to his environment develop the ability to set realistic goals for himself and improve his total educational programmes. According to Nwabuoku (1999) there are various types of educational information and the following are some of them:
1. Information regarding the different department in the school and various subjects being taught.
2. Information about the minimum required being taught for each course of study in the universities and other tertiary institutions.
3. Information regarding the various types of occupation and the training types of occupation and the training qualification required before entry into such occupation.
Iwuama also stated that students need proper information about the various vocational social moral, educational opportunities and the psychological conditions of the society for judicious and effective decision. Lack of or inadequate information may lead to the students to inherit and unrealistic decision or choices from the foregoing literature review, one can say that if a students is properly informed and guided about the various types of career choice this enable the students understand himself/herself better. This would guide him or her in making a right career choice on other hand if the child is nor properly informed and guided, the students may take wrong career choice and this may run the students life. So information is very strong factor that determines career choice among youths.
Another factor which determines choice of career among senior secondary school students is the subject of subject studied at school. According to Ijeh (2002) the most prominent factor which influences choices of career seems to be subject studied in school. As contemporary Nigeria emphasis certificate to a large extent, there is a close relationship between subjects studied and certain occupations for example if one wants to become an accountant he need to credit mathematics, English language, Economics and Commerce without which he would not be admitted into a higher institution to read accounts where he will be qualified as an accountant.
Masllum’s study (1983) revealed that in Nigeria where students in secondary schools are divided into arts and social classes, they are compelled to choose careers related to their subjects area of classification. Iwuama (1999) strongly supports the idea of relationship between subject combination or courses and careers. He refers to the present system of education, which offers a lot of subjects to students leading to specialization in the vocational, grammar. Sciences, technical, arts and commercial areas. This education policy is in the right direction if only qualified teachers for all these areas can be provided and guidance counsellors are sent to school and guide the students. This would help the students to choose the right subjects that would lead them to career of their interest as we as furnish them with the information as well as furnish them with the information about school, college, universities that officers what courses. Another strong supporter of this view is Okolie (2000) who says that the schools subjects’ combination is another factor that can affect individuals career planning and development. He cites an instance doctors but did not study chemistry and biology in his school subjects, could not follow the medical careers. The foregoing literature review has shown us the importance of subject combination in whatever course or career one wants to read or follow in life and how it is necessary that he or she must study the subjects that lead to his or her career choice. If students have no definite subject combination they cannot be admitted into any course because they are not prepared for any definite course or career. An advise given in Sapele technical school by Olayinka (1972) pointed out that guidance is essential in a complex society in which most people are constantly drifting, away from home to cities for jobs. A concerted effort is sometimes needed to identify and encouraged some youths who indicate interest in a subject like agriculture. Nigeria is an agriculture country but if adequate steps are not take she may have to import most of the food needed to keep her population from malnutrition, starvation or even famine. A school guidance official can help to identify the interested youths, while the federal and state government should be prepared to champion the course for a mechanized farming and to subsidize farmers enable them earn a living commensurate with their services to their nation.
A school guidance facility can help to identify the interested students, which are interested in the subject agriculture in order to encourage them. While federal government should play their role too. On the other hand there is need for government to employ more guidance counsellor facilities in school. All these enable students to determine career according to Leo Fering (1970) if our children at the various levels of schooling be systematically and sufficiently exposed to wide subject areas, they will develop wider interested and make choice from the literature reviewed above, one can say that a students should be limited to a particular field instead the child should be exposed to various combination in order to make a better career choice.
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