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Economics we all know deals with the human behaviour which can further be explained as the way we earn our living and make choices to satisfy our needs. It thereforeconcentrates on the research of organizations and the government whose day to day transactions are focused on the production of goods and services in other to satisfy of human needs since economics is has to do with human behavior.  Budhwar (2002).Economics is a social science, just like other science subjects, the procedures or the way things are done in economics is methodological, its analysis is done according to a system, and the validity of its diverse theories can be tested. For this reason,effort has been made to introduce and implement the theoretical basis or aspects of the course with their practical implementations. Economics education is one of the courses that introduces students the major facets of live, equips them on few ethics required for successful work with people and organizations, Budhwar 2012. This course has been introduced by the Comparative Education studyto satisfy the needs of Economics in the new system.

Economics education is also known as the study that has to do with economic issues in relation to education. Based on the previous works on correlation between schooling and labor market outcomes for individuals, the area of economics education has grown tremendously to cover all facets with loop holes of education Armstrong 2011.The main reason for the introduction of this course is satisfy the cravings of fortifying students with the basic knowledge and skills that will help them to sincerely welcome the nature of economic challenges in any society. In the light of this ideology, below are the specificaims for the Economics education course; a)Economics education was introduced in schools curriculum to fortify students with the major principles of Economics that is required for successful living and for higher education, b) To equip and reinforce students to be wise, judgmatical and productive in the management of scarce resources, c) To encourage students high respect for the seriousness, worthy of labour and their appreciation of economic, cultural and social ethics of our society and d) To help students gain knowledge for the immediateanswer to the economic challenges of the society; and the world at large. The importance of economics education to any nation is very vivid and cannot be ignored. It permits leaders and citizens to understand root and branches of economics concepts, principles and also to understand, appreciate and desire to grow the economic situation for their own social good. A good understanding of economics is a must have for good citizenship.

Thecollection, accretion of human capital development strategies is a vital contributor to effective teachers’ performance in economics education, specifically in Imo state.

Human capital is a phrase that economists introducedwhich has to do with the productive skills and technical knowledge of workers, staffs, teachers, employees, etc. It compriseshuman knowledge, skills, and abilities, values and drives they need to add to their skills to the organization’s goals, Dessler 2012. Economists and business people call these set of people characteristics “human capital” just to point out the importance of employee skills and strengths and the importance for organizations to invest in their people, just as they do in physical capital, in order to be successful. In this era of knowledge economy, human capital has become extremelyvital than physical capital when it comes to adding value.

In education, human capital development strategies are most likely to be even more vital to teacher’s performance. Education is a human-capital-intensive enterprise, with around 80 percent of most school divisions budgets spent on staff salaries and incentives. Most of the key methods of learning are controlled and impacted by the staff those teachers that communicate with the students on daily bases.

Human capital development strategies areperceived as a major field of study for teachers in the in the education context. The studyprepares the leadership and management of any school, specifically the teachers in teaching and attaining the goal of the school. A good number of researchers have conducted and provided proven and well-reasoned insights on HCDS in the educational sector in the recent times; while negligence of the study is a provein the end of the usage or implementation of productive HCDS in the education sector. (Adu 1998)opined that the knowledge, awareness and application of HCDS as paramount to the smooth functioning of education leaders as it helps to make available a foundation for the development and growth of education systems. Teachers who are perceived to know their onions in HCDS are known to perform better for the development of the organization than the incompetent and unskilled ones (Franekel 2012). In addition, Ayodele(2009) stressed on the fact that the leaders’ knowledge and skills of HCDS help in encouraging the efficiency and efficacy of the staff leads to the enhancement of their organization at large. The idea of utilizing HCDS in the corporate sector to attain the neededobjectives has almost the same implication in the education sector, Wichenje (2012). Leaders are therefore needed to be well informed and familiar with the necessary skills needed for productive leadership and management for the growth of their institutions and the wellbeing of the human resource employed.


The poor or nonexistent human capital development of enhancement has led to poor teachers’ performance in the educational sector and has grossly contributed to the poor educational development in Nigeria which has precipitated to the poor academic performance of students across the country. In other for Nigeria to advance educationally, teachers should be effectively trained in other to achieve increased performance and this can only be achieved through examining the strategies for an effective human capital development in the educational sector.

The increasing student academic underachievement and narrowing the achievement gap are the challenges the Nation has been facing as she tries to develop talents that would contribute to the economy and ensure educational development. Strategies to ensure adequate human capital development in other to enhance students learning and performance is not entirely a mystery as believed in some quarters.


The major aim of the work is to examine human capital strategies for effective teachers’ performance in economics education in Imo state university. Other specific objectives of the study include the following.

1.  To examine strategies for ensuring improved students learning.

2.  To appraise to prospects of human capital development in educational development.

3.  To examine the relationship between human capital development and effective teacher performance in Nigeria.

4.  To examine the relationship between effective teaching of economics education and national development.

5.  To determine the role of government in enhancing human capital development for effective teacher performance.

6.  To examine the influence of human capital development of teachers on students academic performance/achievement.

7.  To recommend ways of improving teachers performances in Nigeria.


1.  What are the strategies for ensuring improved students learning?

2.  What are the prospects of human capital development in educational development?

3.  What is the relationship between human capital development and effective teacher performance in Nigeria?

4.  What is the relationship between effective teaching of economics education and national development?

5.  What is the role of government in enhancing human capital development for effective teacher performance?

6.  What is the influence of human capital development of teachers on students’ academic performance/achievement?

7.  What are the other ways of improving teachers performances in Nigeria.


H01: There is no significant relationship between human capital development and effective teacher performance in economic education.

H02: There is no significant relationship between effective teaching of economics education and national development


The study would be of immense importance to the development of education in Nigeria and the improvement of students academic performance through improving teachers performances as it would reveal the strategies of human capital development in improving students academic performance. The study would also greatly benefit to students, researchers and scholars who are interested in developing a further study on the subject matter.


The study is restricted to human capital development strategies for effective teachers’ performance in economic educations using Imo state university as a case study.


Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.







Adu, E.O and Ayeni A.O (1998). General Economics. Ibadan; Johnson Commercial press.

Adu, E.O. (2001). Modern Trends in Economics Teaching at the secondary school level.In Samuel 0.

Ayodele [ed]. Teaching strategies for Nigerian secondary schools. Power house press and publishers pp. 140-148.

Adu, E.O. [2002]. Two Problem-based learning strategies, Quantitative ability and Gender as Determinants of students academic Achievement in Economics [PhDThesis] University of lbadan; lbadan.

Armstrong, M. (2011), Strategic Human Resource Management: A guide to action, Kogan page, New Delhi.

Budhwar, P. S., & Sparrow, P. R. (2002), Strategic HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Human Resource Management through the Cultural Looking Glass , Mapping the Cognition of British and Indian Managers, 599–639.

DeCenzo, D. A., Robbins, S. P. (2010), Human Resource Management 10th Edition.Balaji Enterprise, New Delhi.

Dessler, G., &Varkkey, B. (2011), Human Resource Management, 12th edition. Dorling Kindersley, New Delhi.

Franekel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., &Yuhan (2012), How to design and evaluate research in education, 6th edition, McGraw Hills Publication, New York.

Wichenje, K. M., Simatwa, E. M. W., Okuom, H. A., &Kegode, E. A. (2012), Human Resource Management : challenges for head teachers in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya , a case study of Kakamega East District, Educational Research, 3(2), 159–171.

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