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1.1 Background to the Study
This chapter presents an overview of the background to the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study and objectives, research questions, significance of the study, delimitations and limitations of the study. Child neglect makes children to score poorly, to be absent from school and sometimes drop out of school (Gootman, 1993). It also hinders children holistic development (Kundu & Tutoo, 2000). Parent child neglect also makes children to repeat classes and develop negative attitude towards school (Acierno & Resnick, 1997). When parents support their children they perform better in school (Jeynes, 2007). All types of child abuse emanate from parent child neglect and a child who is neglected by parents is vulnerable to many other vices (Gootman, 1993).
Parent child neglect is when the parent or caregiver fails to meet the basic needs of a child (Umobong, 2010). Parent child neglect is a situation when a parent fails to provide the basic needs of a child which includes food and education (Children Act, 2001). Parent child neglect also refers to when parents can’t meet a child’s needs due to lack of skills or support (Alued, 2000).
Neglect of children by parents is a global issue. According to DePanfilis (2006) child neglect is a common child maltreatment which is never reported. In USA Hussey, Chang and Kotch (2006) found that physical assault and physical neglect were the most common forms of child abuse. In the United Kingdom, Cawson and Corrinne (2014) established that maltreatment of children was an extensive social problem. Nguyen (2006) who did a study in Vietnam had found that many young children were exposed to many forms of child abuse like physical neglect. It was therefore necessary to find out whether parent child neglect is an issue in Africa and specifically Nigeria.
Studies done in Africa have also shown that child neglect is a serious problem. For example, in Uganda Tuwangye (2000) found that some forms of child abuse by parents were regarded as part of everyday life. This practice of denying the female children basic education was also found to be practiced in many communities in Nigeria (Nasir, 1988). In Nigeria the Early Childhood Development (ECD) Service Standard Guidelines (2006) safeguards the rights of children which include protection from all forms of abuse. It further states that children need to be given stimulation, shelter, proper clothing, adequate nutrition, healthcare education and others (Nigeria, 2006). The National Early Childhood Development (ECD) policy framework (2006) also provides for the safety and protection of children from all forms of abuse and neglect (Republic of Nigeria (ROK), 2006). The policy also advocates for safeguarding of the rights of young children which was the focus of this study. There was therefore need to establish whether parents comply with the policies. In Nigeria it is also an offence for any person to neglect a child (Children Act, 2001). There was also need to find out whether parents comply with the provisions of the constitution.
Therefore, this study was designed to establish the influence of Parental Socio-Economic Status on the Incident of Child Abuse and Neglect Among the ECWA Nursery and Primary School Pupils’ in Malali, Kaduna State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Child negligence is failure for a parent to meet the basic needs of a child. Neglected children perform poorly in school because they lack basic needs and support. Research has shown that parent child neglect starts at home and in early childhood which is caused by many factors related to the home environment.
The studies done in Nigeria and some countries on child abuse and negligence have mainly concentrated on social-economic and cultural factors which promote child maltreatment and very little on socio-economic factors. Due to the effect of child negligence on children’s holistic development and performance in school, there was need to establish the prevalent forms of child negligence in primary school and determine how socio-economic factors of parents are influencing it in order to suggest appropriate strategies to overcome the vice.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The study was to determine the influence of parental socia-economic status on the incident of child negligence among First ECWA Nursery and primary school pupils’ in Malali, Kaduna. The study was also to determine the influence of parents’ level of education, income and occupation on child negligence and the strategies teachers are using to overcome the problem.
1.3.1 Objectives of the Study
i. To find out the forms of parental child negligence among primary school pupils of First ECWA Nursery and Primary School, Malali, Kaduna State.
ii. To find the influence of parental background on child negligence among primary school pupils of First ECWA Nursery and Primary School, Malali, Kadua.
iii. To determine the influence of parent’s income on child negligence among primary school, Malali, Kaduna State. the positive strategies put in place to overcome child negligence among primary school pupils.
iv. To find out the influence of parents expenditure on child negligence among primary school pupils.
1.3.2 Research questions
1. What are the forms of parental child negligence among primary school pupils of First ECWA Nursery and Primary School, Malali, Kaduna State?
2, What are the main prevailing factors that are responsible for child negligence among primary school pupils?
3. What are the strategies put in place to overcome child negligence among primary school pupils?
4, What are the challenges encountered in taking the strategies to overcome child negligence?
1.4 Significance of the Study
This study finding will provide insight to the forms of child negligence in primary schools. This study may also shed light on how parents’ socio-economic status influences child negligence.
The findings of the study may be useful to many key stakeholders like teachers, school board of management, and county government. Teachers may use the findings of the study to come up with strategies to overcome child negligence School Board of Management may use the findings of the study to come up with strategies to reduce child negligence in schools.
The study assumed that parents understood the basic needs of children and reasons why they should provide the basic needs of their children.
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