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1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
A drug can be define as any chemical solid, liquid or amorphous substance derived from plants, animals or minerals resources which is applied externally or internally to cause some desirable effects. Drug abuse according to Laver (1978) simply means the improper use of drugs to the degree that the consequences are defined as detrimental to the user and or the society. The World Health Organization (WHO (2006) also defined drug abuse as a “state” of periodic or chronic intoxication, detrimental to the individual and to the society, produced by the repeated consumption of a drug (natural or synthetic).
Drug abuse on the other hand is the recurrent use of illegal drugs, or the misuse of prescription or over-the-counter drugs with negative consequences. Drug abuse is the use of drugs for purposes other than medical reasons, thus affecting the individual in a negative way socially, cognitively or physically (Kuria 1996). Social effects may be reflected in an individual’s enhanced tendency to engage in conflicts with friends, teachers, and school authorities. Cognitive effects relate to the individual’s lack of concentration on academic performance or work and memory loss. While Lewinsohn (2007) defines a drug any product other than food or water that affects the way people feel, think, see, and behave. It is a substance that due to its chemical nature affects physical, mental and emotional functioning of the body system. It can enter through chewing, inhaling, smoking, drinking, rubbing on the skin or injection.
Drug abuse amongst the global youth population has become a serious problem affecting everyone. Addiction leads many people, young prominent amongst them into downward spiral of hopelessness that in some cases end fatal. They range from glue-sniffing street children teenage ecstasy users, to hard core heroin and cocaine addicts (Nacada, 2004). Drug abuse is responsible for lost wages, destruction of property in schools, soaring health care costs and broken families. It is a problem which affects us all as parents, children, teachers, government officials’ taxpayers and workers.
South Africa study found an alcohol use prevalence rate at 39% and a cigarette use prevalence rate of 10.6% among high school adolescents. Other drugs that are commonly used in this setting include cannabis, inhalants, tranquilizers, heroin and cocaine, among others. The drug problem in South African is extremely serious, with drug usage reported as being twice the world norm. Over 15% of their population has a drug problem. Studies show that people who start drinking before the age of 15 are four times likely to become alcoholics. School kids who use alcohol or drugs are three times likely to get involved in violent crimes. Frighteningly the average age of drug dependency in South African is 12 years old and still dropping (Peter Jordan, 2008).
Tanzania is the secondary country after Kenya in East African with an increasing number of drug users mainly being school going teenagers The Drug Commission (DCC) Report (2011) states that the actual number of drug addicts in general is estimated to be at 150,000 and 500,000 nationwide. Statistics issued by Mirembe Hospital in Dodoma region that were incorporated in the DCC Report show that the number of young people who use drugs and attend clinics at the hospital increased from 290 in 2000 to 569 in 2005, equal to a 96.2 per cent increase.
Furthermore, Chikere and Mayowa (2011) found that in a number of school and college surveys in Nigeria, alcohol use is the most common among students, with many drinking students having had their first drink in familysettings. They also discovered that the majority of students affected were initiated into the use of alcohol at a tenderage of 16-20 years.
Social problem like drug abuse has been attracting the attention of sociologist, political scientist, psychologist, philosophers, criminologist and social workers. Social workers in particular, have been working relentlessly to provide solutions to the problems posed by drug abuse. But since the aim has not been fully accomplished, the need for more research work on the problem becomes more imperative coupled with the facts that the problem seriously affects the social, economic, political and academic lives of drug users in both rural and urban areas. To the society as a whole, crime, promiscuity, armed robbery, rape, cultism, murder, theft, fighting and other vices are all linked to drug abuse. Therefore this study is motivated by the controversy that surrounds the consequences of drug abuse on the education of senior primary schools pupils in chikun local government area.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The danger of drug abuse among students has been the centre of attraction for comments, debates, and discussion amongst the public, media and other intelligentsia. Drug abuse in Nigeria, in the contemporary time has become an issue that affect the entire Nigerian society especially among senior primary school pupils which they can be easily influenced. Due to the rapid development, drug use has become common among pupils in primary schools and even affecting their performance in class. Despite the worldwide concern and education about the dangers of drug abuse, most of the pupils have limited knowledge of how dangerous the habit is (Ngesu, 2008). Many students have dropped out of school and others opted to engage in criminal activities thus endangering the lives of the people living around them. The young generation no longer has role models since most of the young adults are unemployed and under the influence of this drugs.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The study will attempt to answers the following questions:
1. Which drugs are commonly abused by senior primary school pupils in chikun local government area?
2. What are the major reasons accountable for the engagement of senior primary school pupils in drug abuse in chikun local government area?
3. What are the likely implications for senior primary school pupil’s involvement in drug abuse?
1.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
The specific objectives of this study will be;
1. To find out the drugs that are commonly abused by senior primary school pupils in chikun local government area.
2. To ascertain the reasons why drugs are been abused by senior primary school pupils in chikun local government.
3. To find out the implications for senior primary school pupils involvement on drug abuse.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is intended to cover some senior primary schools pupils in chikun local government area with the aim of finding out the consequences of drug abuse on the education of the pupils. This study will concentrate on the determining factors that influence academic performance among pupils and its outcome in primary schools within chikun local government area. This study will examine the commonly abused drugs in school, their cost, availability rate of consumption and various effects on pupil’s performance.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of this study will be useful for the Community, Institutions of higher learning and the Country’s Government. The study will reveal the influence of major drugs on senior primary schools pupils’ academic performance and in their behaviour aspects. There are many parents and teachers with questions as to why their students don’t perform as expected, the government is also looking for explanations as to why the youth are not innovative and as to why most of them drop out of school.
Chikun local government area, like many other local government area, is faced with the social problem of high rates of drug abuse. To make matters worse, the percentage of drug abusers in the population increases yearly despite the efforts to eradicate the problem. Failure to solve this problem not only threatens the life of individuals, but also the economic and social development of the country as a whole. The current study is useful in contributing to the general body of knowledge in this area. Beyond that, however, it also explores the potential of primary schools as well as other schools to curb the drug problem.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
I. Drug: A drug is any product other than food or water that affects the way people feel, think, see, and behave. It is a substance that due to its chemical nature affects physical, mental and emotional functioning.
II. Abuse: This means the misuse of something. It can also be described as the illegal use of something.
III. Drug abuse: It refers to the use of drugs for purposes other than medical reasons, thus affecting the individual in a negative way socially, cognitively or physically.
IV. Consequences: This could be defined as effects. It is also the power to produce result.
V. Pupils: Means senior primary school pupils who are taught by a teacher, especially a young student under 14 years of age.
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