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1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
One of the most discussed issues in the learning environment is the issues of social environment and student academic performance. Social environment could be defined as the immediate physical and social setting in which people live or in which something happens or develops (Ngwoke, 2005). The family is our first school for emotional learning. From there we learn how to feel about ourselves and how others react to our feelings, how to thinks about this feelings and what choices we have in reacting and how to read and express hopes and fears.
This emotional coaching operates not just through the parents say and does directly to their children, but also through the models they offer for handling their feelings and those that pass between husband and wife (Bhattacharya, 2016). Hence, it is very important for parents to develop self-understanding of their emotions and feelings in order to transform that understanding in their children. The more the parents are able to understand their emotions, the better they will be able to manage their child’s emotional personality.
Emotional competence or incompetence of parents has affirmative or adverse effects on adolescents. Findings of many research indicated that children raised in loving, caring, secure, consistent and stable social environment have a greater probability of developing well in socially, psychologically, physically, emotionally and morally (Harlock B. Elizabeth, 2014). During the adolescence period individual begins to form a sense of self, seeks to develop more mature relationships with peers and family and attempt to increase independence (Bhatia & Bhatia, 2008). Supportive relationship with family members have been shown to influence a broad range of social behavioural ,emotional and academic outcomes, including depression, anxiety, self-esteem, delinquency, social competence, involvement with drugs and alcohols, achievement motivation and academic achievement of an adolescents (Mohanraj, 2005).
The social-environment is a most powerful informal learning situation in which the family, more specially parents, acts as an educator. (Sharma & Vaid, 2005) states that, the family is a place in which; the whole ranges of human experiences take place. (Youniss & Smollar, 2005) also stated that, it is what parents do in the home that counts for learning development of children. It goes without saying that lack of encouragement, low quality of parental involvement and lack of stimulating activity in the home will reduce the home’s effectiveness as a learning environment. According to (Feldman & Wentzel, 2000), home environment shows generally stronger relationship to cognitive development. Several researchers (McCullough, Ashbridge, & Pegg, 2004) have found relationships between social environment and academic achievement. Children, who have received good social environment and positive attitudes from parents, can academically perform well. Parents are different from one another, both in their relationship with their own children and their feelings or reactions towards schooling of their children.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Every successful academic environment is expected to have an improved social environment. But most school in River State does not have a good social environment when viewed from the way of life of students, their choice for peer group associations, their desire for attending classes; these could have significant effect on their academic performance especially during examinations or student performance assessment. Secondly there have been series of studies relating to academic performance but not even a single study has tried to relate social environment and students’ academic performance. It is to this regard that the researcher desire to examine social environment and students’ academic performance using secondary schools in River State as the case study.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main aim of the research work is to examine social environment and students’ academic performance in secondary schools in River State. Other specific objectives of the study are:
1. to determine the effect of social environment on students’ academic performance in secondary schools in River State
2. to determine the relationship between social environment and academic performance in secondary schools in River State
3. to determine the extent to which social environment affects student academic performance in secondary schools in River State
4. to identify factors within the social environment that affect students’ academic achievement in secondary schools
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The study came up with research questions so as to ascertain the above stated objectives of the study. The research questions for the study are:
1. What is the effect of social environment on students’ academic performance in secondary schools in River State?
2. What is the relationship between social environment and academic performance in secondary schools in River State?
3. To what extent does social environment affect student academic performance in secondary schools in River State?
4. What are the factors within the social environment that affect students’ academic achievement in secondary schools?
1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: there is no significant the relationship between social environment and academic performance in secondary schools in River State
H1: there is significant the relationship between social environment and academic performance in secondary schools in River State
H0: social environment has no significant effect on students’ academic performance in secondary schools in River State
H1: social environment has significant effect on students’ academic performance in secondary schools in River State
The study will be able to ascertain the relationship between social environment and academic performance in secondary schools in River State. The study will also be able to determine the effect of social environment on students’ academic performance in secondary schools in River State.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study on social environment and students’ academic performance will be of immense benefit to the entire secondary schools in River State in the sense that the study will look at social environment and then relate it with the academic performance of secondary school students. The study will serve as a repository of information to other researchers that desire to carry out research on the above topic. Finally the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge in this field of study and provide a basis for further research
1.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study on social environment and students’ academic performance will focus on five (5) secondary schools (Ascension high school, community secondary school, Omoku, River State, Destiny college, Oyibo, Eleme international school, Alesa Eleme and Enitonna high school, Port harcourt) in River State
1.9 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work
1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Social environment: Human social environments encompass the immediate physical surroundings, social relationships, and cultural milieus within which defined groups of people function and interact
Learning:This is gaining knowledge by studying practice or being taught in a school compound. It brings about the gaining of understanding that leads to the modification of attitudes and behaviours through the acquisition of knowledge, skills and values, through study and experience learning cause a change of behaviour that is persistent, measurable and specified or allows an individual to formulate a new mental construct.
School Environment: This is the school compound itself, the classroom the furniture and teaching materials it includes the time in hours spent in the school compound. It also embraces the school surrounding. It must be safe, clean, comfortable and attractive classroom can stimulate learning and help build a classroom community.
Teaching:To give instruction in any way to persons or groups in a school compound. It is also the conscious and deliberate effort by a mature or experience person with intention that the latter will learn or come to believe what he is taught on good grounds.
Performance: the accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost and speed
Student: a person formally engaged in learning, especially one enrolled in a school or college
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Agarwal, J. (1995). Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi: Vikash Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.
Agarwal, Y. (1996). Statistical Methods. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
Asthana, B. (2007). Measurement and Evaluation in Psychology and Education (9th ed.). Agra: Vinod Pustak Mandir.
Best, J. (1982). Research in Education’ (5th ed.). New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.
Bhatia, & Bhatia. (1988). A Textbook of Educational Psychology. Nai Sahar, Delhi: Doaba House Book Seller and Publishers. Bhattacharya, P. (2016). Adolescents Home Perception of their Emotional Intelligence and Social Maturity. International journal of Home Science, 2(I), 144-150.
Feldman, S. S., & Wentzel, K. R. (1990). Relations among Family Interaction Patterns, Classroom Self Restraint, and Academic Achievement in Preadolescent Boys’. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(4), 813-819.
Ganesha Bhatta, H. (New Delhi). Secondary Education: A system Perspective. 1990: Ashish Publishing House .
Harlock B. Elizabeth. (2014). Development Psychology. New Delhi: McGraw Hill education Pvt, Ltd.
McCullough, M., Ashbridge, D., & Pegg, R. (1994). The Effect of Self-Esteem, Family Structure Locus of Control and Career Goals on Adolescent Leadership Behaviour. Adolescence, 29(115), 605-611.
Mohanraj, R. L. (2005). Perceived Family Environment in Relation to Adjustment and Academic Achievement. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 31(1-2), 18-23.
Sharma, N., & Vaid, S. (2005). Role of parents in the social development of adolescent: a comparison of low and middle socio-economic status. Journal of Human Ecology, 18(2), 109-115.
Youniss, J., & Smollar, J. (1985). Adolescent Relations with Mothers, Fathers and Friends. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
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