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1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Field trips are a critical component of standards-based instruction in the classroom, not a separate activity, but a direct extension of classroom instruction. Awotua-Efebo (2009) agrees that field work is a type of instructional medium in use today, since instructional medium according to the author, is “anything (materials and equipment) that can help the teacher to communicate effectively his or her ideas to the students, so that at the end of the instruction the student can do that which the teacher stated in the objectives. Examples are: real object (specimen, models, excursions, field work) projected/non-projected images, print non-prints etc.
Basically, biology field trip is seen as a support for effective teaching and not a centre of attention. Awotua-Efebo (2009) argued that effective teaching should be the goal, and defines effective teaching as “getting the content (message) across in a manner that will accomplish the desired objectives, and add also that if at the end of the instruction, the student do what the teacher want them to do through the process of evaluation, then effective teaching has taken place.
Furthermore, biology field trips by secondary school students were expected to enhance student learning experiences through interaction with resource persons and the environment. Such centers were supposed to provide better resources than the school for first hand information, especially as learning outside the classroom aims at ensuring that all young people had chances to participate in high quality outdoor learning experiences.
It also set out to improve academic achievement, developed skills and interdependent in a widening range of environments and provide the opportunity to acceptable levels of risk. But regrettably, many critics and observers have expressed that the whole exercise is a mere jamboree and a waste of time and energy and has not in any way responded to improve student’s performance in Biology.
Rickinson, et al. (2004) it can lead to life-defining decisions. It can help to broaden horizons, both literally and educationally, and offers great potential for personal development, building independence, self esteem, self confidence and teamwork. Such potentially life-defining opportunities for biologists need to be celebrated and nurtured. Whilst attention often focuses on pressures and demands, field activities can be highly effective in developing mutual understanding between teachers and students which enhances the effectiveness of learning and can provide motivation which transfers/remains after the field experience Hillcox, S. (2003).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Field trip is an essential part of learning that enhances effective teaching and learning process. At times this aspect of teaching may not really be effective due to the fact that there are no resources that are pulled towards that direction since it needs so much funding. It could be that most biology teachers do not even know where exactly to take the student to for excursion. Finally, several researches has been carried out on the effect of field trip on biology students but not even a single research has been carried out on the effect of field trip on biology students achievement in Kwuano LGA, Abia state.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main aim of the study is to examine the effect of field trip on biology student’s achievement. Other specific objectives of the study include:
1. to determine the effect of field trip on male and female student’s achievement.
2. to determine the effect of field trip on biology student’s achievement.
3. to determine the difference in urban and rural school students achievement in field trip teaching method.
4. to proffer possible solutions to the problems.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the effect of field trip on male and female student’s achievement?
2. What is the effect of field trip on biology student’s achievement?
3. What is the difference in urban and rural school student’s achievement in field trip teaching method?
4. What are the possible solutions to the problems?
1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: Field trip has no significant effect on biology student achievement in Kwuano LGA of Abia state.
H1: Field trip has no significant effect on biology student achievement in Kwuano LGA of Abia state.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study on the effect of field trip on biology student achievement will be of immense benefit to the entire Kwuano local government and Abia state at large in the sense that it will enable the government to fund field trip so as to enable the students learn since biology is more practical than theory; more also since students cannot easily forget the things they see, (take for instance “movie”)such that they can tell you from the beginning to the end without forgetting anything the same thing applies to theory in class and field trip which will encourage and help them learn. The study will also enable the government in recruiting and also train effective biology teachers. Finally, the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge to this field of study and basis for further research.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study on the effect of field trip on biology student’s achievement is limited to Kwuano local government area of Abia state.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Effect:A change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.
Field Trip:Or excursion is a journey by a group of people to a place away from their normal environment.
Achievement:A thing done successfully with effort, skill, or courage.
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