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The study was designed to determine the influence of instructional materials on student’s academic performance in physical and health education. A random sample of 200 JSS2 students and fourteen (14) physical and health education teachers from urban and rural secondary schools in Uyo Educational Zone participated in the study. The physical and health education achievement test with a reliability index 0.94 and a questionnaire for physical and health education teachers were used in gathering data. Analysis of data, using t-test for the physical and health education achievement test and questionnaire for physical and health education teachers showed that students in urban secondary schools achieved better than students in rural secondary schools, and that the availability of instructional resources, the classroom performance, adequate audio-visual as instructional materials enhance student academic performance, the quality of teachers affects teaching and learning achievement, availability of visual materials promote effective teaching and students academic performance. The study has implications for health educators, learners, education planners and policy makers. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that teachers should use instructional materials always for the teaching; instructional materials should be use properly in relation to the topic in teaching physical and health education.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Over the years a good numbers of educationists, sociologists and psychologists have focused their attention on the impact of the instructional materials on the education of the child (Fafuwa, 2008, Lindgren, 2012, Black More and Cookey, (2010). Even through Milgaid and Alkinson (2011), have noticed that education and learning are largely motivational, Morgan and King (2012) opines that instructional materials determine learning to some extent, and according to them, maturation requires an instructional cooperation for the inherited tendencies of individual to be fully realized. A child who acquires a great capacity to learn and achieve much in any particular subject such as physical and health education requires an environment which is stimulating enough to cooperate with the inherited characteristics or traits in order for the potentials to be realized.
The school provides the necessary teaching aids upon which the learners can socialize into the mainstream of the society through formal education (Taiwo, 2011). It is an organization that is set up for the purpose of socialization and cultural transmission. The process of socialization and cultural transmission can be achieved by making available the study materials and a conducive atmosphere that can facilitate effective learning and teaching (Morrish, 2010). This is why Ibanga (2013) maintains that school instructional materials need to be up to a minimum standard requirement for effective academic performance and achievement. He also noted that lack of instructional material can cause poor school learning conditions and cannot support effective learning and academic achievement. Educational resources and facilities available in a given school environment do influence teaching, learning and academic performance. At this time, education has spread wide and the entire oral teaching cannot be the key to successful pedagogy; therefore, the teacher has to use instructional material to make the teaching-learning process interesting (Nicholls, 2009 and Raw, 2010). The use of instructional material can enhance academic performance and learning achievement in physical/health education as a subject taught in both primary and secondary levels.
According to Cronbac (2007), the use of instructional materials during teaching and learning process can appeal to the individual attention among students by creating interest. Indeed, instructional material provide concepts and attitudes to the student which improved his skills, ability to reason and make him/her informed about what is going on in the global village. Education has helped to bring the entire world into an entity through the information and knowledge education has helped us to achieve.
In another development, the use of instructional materials makes different continent to shape their rules and regulations, to accommodate the other. An instructional material makes student understand more easily when the teacher makes use of working model. It makes the teacher’s task easier and more effective. Olardi (2010) has highlighted the impact of instructional materials that teachers use to improve the students from understanding a perception of the subject as an enhanced aid.
Obot (2010) observes that students in schools that are properly equipped in terms of classrooms, library, sports equipment and adequate staffing stand to benefit much more than those in schools that are poorly equipped. Physical and health education classes in schools that are poorly equipped and staffed are taught theoretically and students are passive listeners
Etuk (2013) in support of the statement states that science concepts are difficult to teach in school because of the acute shortage of regular teaching aids and equipment. This may lead to little students practice and misguided teaching method (Akpan, 2005). The sizes of most physical and health education classes in Nigerian secondary schools are large for single teachers to handle or cope with. As noted by Ibanga (2007), such a situation may be due to poor staffing in populous schools or inadequate accommodation for the students. Crowded physical and health classes affect adversely the student’s academic performance of a child.
Okebukola (2013), observes that because of slow rate in the provision of instructional materials in schools and supporting personnel, science classes are usually crowded and the situation may impede students performance in physical and health education. The quality of instruction in a physical and health education classroom is a function of quality of instructional inputs.
According to Ezeife (2010), adequate learning facilities must be available for the teaching of curriculum contents so that the curriculum contents so that the curriculum objectives may be achieved such facilities as good and functional sports, equipment, current textbooks and adequate space are essential for proper and effective teaching and learning are occur.
Umanah (2011) is of the opinion that poor academic performance of the learners in school is attributed to inappropriateness of teaching or instructional materials facilities
have a lot of influence on teacher’s effectiveness and student’s academic performance in physical and health education in Nigerian secondary schools.
In the view of Mazieobi (2012) the unavailability of implementation resources inadequate quantity and quality militates against effective curriculum implementation. Onyejiaku (2010) is in supports of this fact when he remarks that learning materials are very insufficient and inadequate in Nigerian schools. Otu (2014) shares the same view and contends that poor instructional materials in schools are a major influence militating against effective and good performance (achievement) in schools. Finally, an instructional material make learning available to a wider audience, control the pace of learning, promote better understanding and help to overcome physical difficulties in presenting the subject content.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The use of instructional materials has a lot of general benefits that make a great impact in teaching and learning process. The teacher’s level of resourcefulness, creativity, an imagination is credited to the achievement quality education. These are expressed in how well the teacher is able to perceive, create and use the relevant information that can enhance and promote effective teaching and learning activities. Balogun (2012) found out that there were inadequate and poor school facilities in the developing countries.
These inadequate and poor school facilities affected the student and made them to perform much below expectation. He also stated that by using the few available instructional materials a student is expected to give the greatest satisfaction in the classroom or during teaching. Unfortunately, it has been found that most physical and health education teachers have not been using the few available instructional materials and as such, students are the worse in both internal and external examinations. Ani (2010) has pointed out that contents of physical and health education should match the learners cognitive abilities and that children should be allowed to interact with concrete instructional materials. Physical and health education teaching involves the interpretation of the curriculum contents, use of underling implementation of the curriculum. As noted by Inyang (2013 implementation of the curriculum should be designed to produce sound and effective citizen at appropriate levels of learning that are capable of achieving based on the aims and objectives of the curriculum.
Okereke (2009), observes that many schools in the state cannot boast of instructional resources. He contends that every government should contend with the issue of making education her priority to help improve the standard of learning by providing the required instructional materials to schools. The view that government should provide found to principal who monitors the teaching staff to help principal provide the instructional materials needed by the students at all time.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Generally, the purpose of this study is to examine the influence and instructional materials on student’s academic performance in physical and health education is affected by:
1. Find out the influence of the use of instructional materials on students academic performance in physical and health education.
2. Find out the gender difference in the performance of students in physical and health education when instructional materials are used.
3. Impact of instructional materials on classroom performance.
4. To closely observe how the use of instructional material in teaching and learning influence academic performance of secondary school students.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The study specifically addressed itself to the following research questions:
1. To what extent does the availability of instructional resources influence the academic achievement of students in physical and health education?
2. To what extent does classroom performance influence student’s achievement in physical and health science?
3. To what extent does audio-visual as instructional materials influence student’s academic performance in physical and health education?
4. In what way does the availability of visual materials influence student academic performance in physical and health education?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Based on the research questions stated above, the following null hypotheses were tested.
1. Classroom performance does not significantly influence achievement in physical and health education in secondary schools.
2. There is no significant relationship between the availability of instructional resources and academic performance in physical and health education at the secondary school level.
3. Audio–visual as instructional materials does not significantly influence performance on students in physical and health education.
4. Audio materials do not have significant influence on student academic performance in physical and health education.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study rested on the fact that the level of intellectual development of a learner results mainly from the interaction of his inherent intelligence level with various instructional materials influences (Hilgard et al 2010).
First and foremost, the findings of the study will improving students level of academic performance in physical and health education at the secondary school level through the provision of conducive learning environment. It creates awareness among school and examining bodies about the influence of instructional materials and the academic performance of students in a course of study.
Again, the study also emphasizing the need of enriched and stimulating learning resources as if affects the performance of students. In order words, stressing the importance and benefit of the adequate instructional materials in physical and health education in teaching and learning. Furthermore, the study will be significance provide information for guidance counselors for effective counseling of students of physical and health education.
Finally, the study will be significance to parents, this is so because when conducting parent teachers meeting such an issue might be raised and this will serve as a good references document in providing solutions.
1.7 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study was restricted in scope to the influence of instructional material such as sports facilities availability of library facilities, class performance, adequate instructional resources, and quality of teaching personnel on secondary schools students’ cognitive academic performance in physical and health education only to JSS2 students from sampled public secondary schools were used for the study. The study only covered public secondary schools in Uyo educational zone of Akwa Ibom State.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study was limited to student’s cognitive performance based on the physical and health educati
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