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1.1 Background of the study
The Nigerian society today has to grapple with many behavioral problems of its youth. Such problems include truancy, disobedience, drug offences, assault, insult, stealing, violent, demonstration, vandalism, examination malpractices, robbery and secret cult activities (Nnachi, 2003). Apart from these widely publicized behavioral problems, heterosexual activities are also listed among types of behavioral problems prevalent in Nigeria secondary schools. These are variously named in the literature as sex abuse, sex offences, sexual misconduct, sexual immorality, sexual promiscuity and sexual maladjustment (Odoemelam, 1996; Adedipe, 2000; Ndu, 2000; Nnachi, 2003). The end of the nineteenth century and the early part of the twentieth century represented an important period in the invention of the concept we now call adolescence. Adolescence can be described as the period between the latter stage of childhood and early stage of adulthood (Health Foundation of Ghana, 2004). The World Health Organization (WHO) suggested adolescence to be the period between the ages of 10 and 19 or the second decade of life. Adolescence, therefore, refers to boys and girls who fall within this stage or period. Sex education simply refers to the systematic attempt to promote the healthy awareness in the individual on matters of his or sound development, functioning, behavior and attitude through direct teaching. Sex is a topic, which most people would not like to talk about. The Nigerian parents’ attitude to sex is that the child will grow to know. In the home, when the child is present and parents are discussing issues about sex, even the adolescent child is kept away from sight. An inquisitive child who ventures to ask questions about sex is morally branded “a bad” child. Many society and homes consider discussion of sexual issues as a taboo. In view of this, most parents find it too difficult, awkward and uncomfortable to discuss sex-related issues with their children. Children are condemned when they mention a word referring to some sexual organ or act. Even the hands of babies are hit whenever they fondle with their sex organs. Due to this, throughout adolescence, the youth in the country learn about sex and sexuality in a variety of ways devoid, in most cases of factual and empirical information and in secrecy. The child comes to know about sex possibly from an early age through relatives, friends, the elderly, movies, and drawing. A 14 year old boy was asked where he learned about sex, he responded “in the streets’. Asked if this was the only place, he said “well, I learned some from play boy and others sex magazines”. What about school, he was asked? He responded, “No, they talk about hygiene, but not much that could help you out”. When asked his parents’ contribution, he replied “they haven’t told me one thing” (Powers and Baskin, 1969). In a similar survey contained in the Population Report (1995), seventy-five percent of the students sampled preferred to discuss about bodily changes that occur during adolescence with peers of the same sex, non of them wanted it to be with their parents. As a result of a cultural taboo, adolescents in many developing countries rarely discuss sexual matters explicitly with their parents. Most information for their patchy knowledge often comes from peers of the same sex, who may themselves be uninformed or incorrectly informed. The end result to know about one’s sexual development, hence experimentation to explore one’s sexual life. The issue of introducing sex education has been a tropical and controversial one with two schools of thought emerging. This scholarly tug of war has engaged the attention of policy makers and government the world over, religious organization, parents and even children. Many are those who have called for its introduction due to the apparent havoc that irresponsible and unplanned sexual behavior brings. As a child reaches the adolescence stage, the interest in the opposite sex generates. This instinct (sex drive) which has been present with the adolescent since childhood pushes him or her to ‘pet’, kiss and manipulate the sex organ, etc. Curiosity and experimentation of sex, which sometimes leads to teenage pregnancy and or contraction of STD (sexually transmitted diseases), are prevalent at this adolescent stage.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
A lot of sex related problems facing the youth of today is undoubtedly linked with lack of sex education. It is apt to point out that even though these (matters about sex) impinge generally on men, the vulnerable group is the youth, many of whom are not knowledgeable in matters concerning sex. In their bid to satisfy their curiosity, many a youth would like to experiment these things and inexperience usually lead them into dangerous consequences. Many a time, the adolescent receive wrong information and these myths and misconception are carried throughout their life time. Therefore, there is a need to provide adolescents with information so as to enable them to cope better with these changes (Sathe, 1992). The fact is that with or without these services, the tendency towards precocious sexual relations, pregnancy in adolescence and the alarming increase in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in these age groups, are commonplace and universal realities. It is necessary that the adolescent is made aware of these bodily changes through education before they occur so that they can adequately prepare themselves before the asset of puberty, and also help them engage in other activities rather than sexual manipulation. The study, therefore, sought to explore the adolescents’ opinion on various sexual issues that account for their sexual development and to establish the need for sex education in senior high schools
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is a study of adolescent attitude towards sex education in the senior secondary school. But for the successful completion of the study; the researcher intends to achieve the following sub-objectives;
1. To ascertain whether sex education have effect on academic performance of student.
2. To find out the nature of adolescents thoughts and feelings towards sex education in relation to information given by parent, teachers, and other media.
3. To determine the extent to which gender, age grade and residence influence learner’s thought and feeling towards sex education.
4. To ascertain the relationship between adolescent attitude towards sex education and senior school students academic performance.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: sex education has no effect on academic performance of student
H1: sex education has effect on academic performance of student
H02: there is no significant relationship between adolescent attitude towards sex education and student academic performance
H2: there is a significant relationship between adolescent attitude towards sex education and student academic performance.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of benefit to adolescent, parents and general public towards sex education. The study will also be of great benefit to the researchers who intends to embark on research on similar topics as it will serve as a guide. Finally, the study will be of great importance to academia’s, lecturers, teachers, students and the general public.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers the role of management accountant to cost control and profit performance in an organization. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.7 DEFINITION OF THE TERMS
ADOLESCENT: Adolescence is a transitional stage of physical and psychological development that generally occurs during the period from puberty to legal adulthood.
ATTITUDE: A settled way of thinking or feeling about something
SEX EDUCATION: Sex education is instruction on issues relating to human sexuality, including emotional relations and responsibilities, human sexual anatomy, sexual activity, sexual reproduction, age of consent, reproductive health, reproductive rights, safe sex, birth control and sexual abstinence.
SENIOR SECONDARY: The senior secondary years are the years of later adolescence corresponding to the later part of secondary education. ... The term "senior secondary" may also be used to refer to any institution that covers the upper part of secondary education, such as a high school.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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