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Background of the Study
In life, anger is unavoidable. It occurs between two people, between groups and even within an individual. Anger occurs in every organization including educational organizations. The intervention techniques for Anger resolution, whether positively or negatively, is the main concern regarding the outcome of the particular Anger.
Several intervention techniques like peace keepingtechniques, administrative intervention techniques, moral intervention techniques and psychological intervention techniques for anger resolution have been developed for use by teachers in resolving anger in secondary schools. As a peace keepingtechnique for resolution of Anger early recognition of social and emotional problems in students by teacher is necessary for best developmental outcomes (Crow & Richie, 2008). However, social and emotional difficulties continue over time and are highly resistant to change. Thus, it is not surprising that a strong relationship exists between student behavioural problems, delinquency, and later criminality (Enyi, 2002). However, if these social and emotional problems in students are left unattended, they create impairment which places students at high risk of
persistent social and emotional problem, under-achievement, school drop-out and ultimately delinquency.
Young students’ ability to learn and eschew Anger is assured by a sense of security and stability and continuous relationship with teachers including their families and communities, Okoro in Mhehe (2007). Therefore, teachers early identification of students social and emotional problems and intervention on these social and emotional problems of students can have a significant impact on the developing students. Reits in Onoyase (2009) considers the development of emotional stability and social ability in the early years of students by teachers as playing a critical part in shaping the way students think, learn, react to challenges and develop relationships throughout their lives. Thus, teachers help to develop and influence students socially and emotionally because it contributes to the cognitive development of the students.
Teachers develop students socially and emotionally by helping them to identify and understand their own feelings; accurately read and comprehend emotional reactions from others; manage strong emotions and their expression in a constructive manner; control one’s own behaviour; develop compassion for others; establish and maintain relationships (Casey & Owne, 2007). However, when teachers help students to achieve the above
feat, continual physical aggression, high school drop-out rates, adolescent delinquency and antisocial behaviour which are associated with students’ conduct will be ameliorated. The students’ years in the school are a vulnerable period for learning to control development of aggression which ushers in Anger (Oputa, 2003). It is evident that students who display high level of physical aggression in school are at the highest risk of taking part in violent behaviours as adolescents or adults. This calls for teachers’ intervention in restructuring the students way of behaviour; a way of preventing Anger in the secondary school system.
As an administrative intervention technique for resolution of Anger in secondary schools, teachers can address behaviours students manifest to avoid or escape a difficult academic task by teaching the students to use a better acceptable escape behaviour (Greenhalgh 2009). (Example is asking for help, which must be available once the student ask for it). According to Hurton & Hunt in Fadipo & Ojedele (2001), it is usually ineffective and often unethical to use aversive technique to control students’ behaviour (e.g. corporal punishment). To this extent, punishment such as suspension should only be considered in extreme cases i.e when the students’ behaviour severely endangers his or her safety or the safety of others; the teacher should try every possible positive intervention (for an appropriate length of
time, remembering that behaviour may get worse before it gets better) before considering punishment (Ude, 2006).
According to Okoro in Mhehe (2007) the psychological intervention techniques to be embraced by the teacher in handling students’ problem should include knowledge of counseling techniques, confidentiality procedures, behaviour modification techniques and knowledge of legal procedure rules techniques. The teacher can equally recourse to the current psychological research technique, grief counseling techniques; interpersonal communication techniques and scientific research methodology in order to resolve anger in the secondary schools (Oputa, 2008).
Teachers teach students perspective taking, self control and social behaviour such as sharing as a way of moral intervention techniques for resolving Anger (Greenhalgh, 2009). However, there is general agreement that teacher effective and mature moral skills must have some capacity to control students behaviour. Teachers teach students self-discipline, along with empathy which are the two building blocks of character. Teachers equally teach the students the ability to carry out their moral vision which is one of the four central ingredients in their cognitive developmental model of moral maturity, which is parallel to moral will for peace keepingin secondary schools (White, 2007).
However, the existence of anger and Anger in the school when neglected can result to chaos, break down of law and order and decline in standard of education. The need for teachers to partake in peace keepingin secondary school can not be over stressed. It is based on this need that the researcher decided to carry out an investigation on peace counseling techniques to resolve anger in secondary schools: teachers’ intervention techniques in Owerri Education zone, of Imo State.
Statement of the Problem
Anger among management, staff and students of the secondary school organization as a result of anger, clog the wheel of progress, growth and development of the school. Unresolved anger precipitate to continual rift, squabble and acrimony among management, staff and students of a school. Anger and its concomitant consequences in the secondary school system has worsened because of lack of intervention techniques in resolving Anger.
Generally, the school management seem to play a major role in peace keepingas a result of anger in schools. At times the role teachers play in peace keeping may not be quite recognized. However, teachers by virtue of their relationship with students and positions in the schools should fully participate in resolution of anger. It is based on these flaws that the
present study is faced with the problem of establishing valid intervention techniques teachers can use to resolve Anger.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of peace counseling techniques teachers can adopt in peace keeping with regard to secondary schools in Owerri Education zone.
Specifically, the study will seek to:
i. Find out the peace counselling techniques teachers can adopt in resolving anger in secondary schools.
ii. Identify the administrative intervention techniques teachers can use to resolve anger in secondary schools.
iii. Ascertain the psychological intervention techniques teachers can recourse to in resolving anger.
iv. Identify the moral intervention techniques teachers can apply in resolving anger.
Significance of the Study
This study will be of benefit to the school administrators, Educational Boards, Ministries of Education and government at all levels. The principals, teachers and staff of ministries of education, besides other educational agencies, will benefit from this study. Headmasters/headmistresses and teachers at the primary school level, the students of secondary school, and other organizational leaders, school inspectors of the ministries of education will equally benefit from this study.
This study is expected to be beneficial to school administrators because when they get to know the peace counselling techniques a teacher should adopt in peace keeping, they shall be willing to give teachers free hand and support when such cases arise. This will help the school administrators to cope with other administrative works needing their attention.
The findings of this study will be most valuable to Educational Boards, Ministries of Education and the government at all levels in reducing and averting anger that have to do with non-satisfaction of human needs and poor incentives in the teaching and learning field by making sure that the teachers’ needs are adequately and timely met.
The study will add to the existing phenomenon of peace counselling. It will provide general guide in peace keeping. It will equally add to the existing concepts and ideas on intervention techniques for peace keeping. Thus, this study is theoretically considered significant.
The principals, teachers and students of secondary education ministries/management board and other educational agencies will benefit from this study. Principals in secondary schools will benefit from this study because it will provide them with greater wisdom on how to resolve Anger among themselves. Furthermore, the study will enable the principals to discover the need to define teachers’ roles and involve them in decision making that affects them. This will enhance conducive school environment for teaching and learning which in turn necessitate the attainment of school objective.
Equally, headmasters/headmistress and teachers at the primary school level will equally benefit from this study because it will aid them to know various causes of anger in the schools and discover how to manage Anger in primary schools. Thus, the awareness will help them to avoid actions leading to Anger for the interest of their job. Hence, peaceful environment will help the head-teacher in proper allocation of scarce resources. Therefore teachers will discover the importance of being dedicated to their duties as non dedication of duties generates Anger between them and the head-teachers.
To this extent, the study will be beneficial to the students because when there is peace and harmony in the school, effective teaching and learning will take place. This will promote high performance of students in examination.
Scope of the Study
This study will focus on the various peace counselling techniques teachers can employ towards the resolution of anger in secondary school. These intervention techniques include; peace keepingtechniques, moral intervention techniques, administrative intervention techniques, and psychological intervention techniques. It will involve teachers and principals in secondary schools in Owerri Education zone of Imo state.
The following research questions are posed to guide the study:
1. What are the peace counselling techniques teachers can adopt in resolving anger in secondary schools?
2. What are the administrative intervention techniques teachers can use to resolve anger in secondary school?
3. What are the psychological intervention techniques teachers can recourse to in peace keeping?
4. What are the moral intervention techniques teachers can apply in resolving anger?
The following hypotheses will be tested at p<0.05 significance level.
Ho1: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of teachers and principals with regard to administrative intervention techniques teachers can use to resolve anger in secondary schools.
Ho2: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of teachers and principals as regards moral intervention techniques teachers can use to resolve anger in secondary schools.
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