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1.1 Background to the Study
When a student fails examination, who is to be blamed for the failure or what factor is the student likely to consider as being responsible for the failure? In another way, who do students attribute their success in exams to? According to Piper (2016), students are supposed to contribute a lot to their examination fortunes and therefore, a student should be blamed for his/her success or failure in school examinations. However, on the part of the students, a collection of responses in Mellon (2008) states that a good number of students attribute the causes of their poor performance in examinations to difficult examination questions. Some of them put blame to examination questions which have unclear direction while others complained that teachers are fond of setting tests and examination questions on areas or topics not taught to the students. In a nutshell, more of the students‟ responses show that students indulge in putting the blame of their examination failure to other persons without looking inward to see their own contributions to the problem.
This behavior of seeing only others to be responsible for one‟s academic success or failure may serve as one of the factors affecting students and their school performance. Therefore, since students keep failing in their various examinations, especially in the Colleges of Education (Dwyer, 2012 &Valli, 2014) and continue to put blame on external factors without seeing anything wrong on their part, it is likely to be a problem because it tends to make an individual omit his/her own roles in contributing to the desired educational fortunes. These erroneous impressions of students have the tendency to manifest automatically with no notice of these students. In other words, it is a salient variable which is capable of discouraging hard work among students. In short, this factor can be best described as General and Examination Anxiety (IAR). Though several scholars have reviewed on some related factor as being responsible for school achievements such as self-esteem, self-efficacy (Pajares, 1997 & Tukur, 2000) but little has been done on General and Examination Anxiety and how it can be affected by Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT).
It is worthy of note that though mental ability is no doubt a predictor of academic performance, it appears that the factor of General and Examination Anxiety (IAR) has influence on the mental effort expended to learn academic tasks. General and Examination Anxiety as seen by Mannarini (2008), is the degree to which students believe they are responsible for the outcome of their academic situations. According to Colman (2009), it was Rotters who first came up with the factor of General and Examination Anxiety from her concept of locus of control on a broader sense before Bialer also worked on locus of control and came up with a scale on it. Many writers since then have continued to write on the topic. According to Solomon, Houlihan and Perelius (2000), General and Examination Anxiety is a dimension of locus of control they describe as a variable closely related to locus of control and the General and Examination Anxiety (IAR) Scale was constructed by Crandall, Katkovsky, and Crandall (1965) which differs from the locus of control in that it is limited to intellectual-academic situations and focuses on significant persons in the school environment: parents, teachers and peers as reinforcing agents, while the locus of control measure attempts to be general.
In each of the variables stated above, it is believed that an individual who attributes the cause of his success and failure to himself tends to improve than the one who attribute it to other people, event or situations. Therefore, in school, those that the IAR scale rates low are likely to be those students who have external General and Examination Anxiety that is, those who believe they are not responsible for their situation. On their part, those who have little or no General and Examination Anxiety lack mental motivation to control events. They therefore, depend on luck, fortunes, chance and help from other people. Those who have the tendency to make excuses for their deficiencies, inadequacies, and laziness and would like to make such expressions like: “I can do nothing, I have no choice, I was not lucky”, etc. On the other hand, there are students who feel they are responsible for their situations and are likely to be rated high by the IAR scale. This means that the sense of being responsible for their academic failure and success is great motivator for students to work hard while the belief of being irresponsible for one‟s academic successes or failure tends to make the person quit out the struggle to fate. Those who have high General and Examination Anxiety feel they have control over events and therefore, when in difficulty they tend to utter statements such as:
1. I know what to do on this issue
2. I am the cause of this problem.
3. I just have to act rightly.
General and Examination Anxiety and students‟ academic performance in schools are likely
to move in the same direction.
One other important factor that is likely to affect both General and Examination Anxiety and academic performance is the Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT). According to Mayor Clinic Staff (2016), REBT is a common type of talk therapy in which the students walk with the therapist in a structured way, attending a limited number of sessions to overcome the challenge of negative and inaccurate thinking and to be able to interpret situation and act accurately. Ellis, (1957) puts that Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy is based on the idea that how we think (cognition) and how we feel (emotion) and how we act (behaviour) all interact together. That is to say that our thoughts can influence our behaviour and if those thoughts are negative or inaccurate, it tends to results in distress. Elis in Solomon, Houlihan and Perelius (2000), states that Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy is based on changing the following assumptions which he called irrational thoughts:
i. The idea that it is catastrophic when things are not working in the desired way ii. The idea that people have no control over their happiness
iii. The idea that the past history has influence over ones present life
iv. The idea that you need someone greater than you to depend upon
There appears a link between Rational Emotive behaviour therapy and General and Examination Anxiety. Since the Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy aims at helping one to change his/her irrational thoughts to the rational thought and from inaccurate interpretations to the more accurate interpretation of self, others, events, situation and the world, and General and Examination Anxiety has to do with feelings and thoughts of students of being responsible for their academic failure or success, it is likely that the two variable affect each other.
Powers (2006), states that sometime some students may think of themselves as people who cannot control their destiny and therefore imagine that they are victims of the system and it can lead to poor academic performance. These can lead to low self-confidence that make students render themselves to be incapacitated by having impression of being incapacitated. When a student is in such a condition, the options are unlikely for him/her to work hard but to depend on luck, chance or examination malpractice. Therefore, this research intended to look into the effects of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy on General and Examination Anxiety and academic performance among NCE students in Kaduna.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
This research work aimed at finding out effects of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy on General and Examination Anxiety among students in Colleges of Education. Through random interaction with the students of Kaduna State College of Education, preliminary investigations showed that a salient trend has continued to exist among the students with adverse effect unnoticed of the students. They magnify examination failure and address it as if that is what the school is good at. Students describe their problem as if the College technically arranges academic achievement to be difficult to them.
What then makes students complain about their misfortunes as if someone is in control of their destinies? It could be that these students have a type of tendency to feel that they are not responsible for their failed or passed courses during test or examination and that someone must always help to change things around them. Those who feel they are not responsible for their successes are likely to be lazy even when they can do better while those who feel that they are responsible for the things happening to them put efforts to control all events. This might have caused students to indulge in complaints and consequently attribute the cause of their failure in test and examinations to the difficulty of the course of study, bad and poor learning environment, wickedness of lecturers, their health condition, wicked or strict examination invigilators, too much course work load, mistake in marking and calculation of marks by the lecturers, error in computation of CGPA by the Examination Computation Unit (ECU) and Information
Communication Units (ICT) and frustration by the entire school management. These wrong beliefs may make students think that they are doing their bests but the school system keeps frustrating them while in the actual sense, they are not putting in their best.
Therefore, the researcher assumed the factor of General and Examination Anxiety might be one of the root causes of the problem and it could negatively affect achievement of students in school. Therefore, the researcher wondered what factor could be used to improve intellectual capacity. To change the feelings of students on responsibility for their success or failure, the researcher thought that Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy might have a role to play and that investigation into the situation was likely to reveal the result which would assist in proffering suggestions that would go a long way in helping the students understand the nature of the problem and a way out of the problem for better academic performance. On that premise, this research was set to investigate the influence and relationship among effects of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy on General and Examination Anxiety, among students in Kaduna State College of Education GidanWaya, Kafanchan
1.3 Objectives of the Study
In this research work, the researcher aimed at achieving the following objectives:
1. To find out the difference in the effect of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy on pretest and posttest mean score of internal General and Examination Anxiety among NCE students of Kaduna State College of Education
2. To examine the difference in the effect of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy on pretest and posttest score of external General and Examination Anxiety among NCE students of Kaduna State College of Education
3. To determine the difference in the posttest score of internal Intellectual Achievement
Responsibility of male and female students.
4. To examine the difference in the posttest score of external Intellectual Achievement
Responsibility of male and female students.
1.4 Research Questions
The researcher raises the following research questions.
1. What is the difference in the pretest and posttest mean score of internal General and Examination Anxiety among NCE students of Kaduna State College of Education?
2. What is the difference in the pretest and posttest mean score of external General and Examination Anxiety among NCE students of Kaduna State College of Education?
3. What is the difference in the posttest score of internal Intellectual Achievement
Responsibility of male and female NCE students?
4. What is the difference in the posttest score of external Intellectual Achievement
Responsibility of male and female NCE students?
The following null hypotheses were raised by the researcher.
Ho1 There is no significant difference in the pretest and posttest mean score of internal
General and Examination Anxiety among NCE students of Kaduna State College of Education.
Ho2 There is no significant difference in the pretest and posttest mean score of external
General and Examination Anxiety among NCE students of Kaduna State College of Education
Ho3 There is no significant difference in the posttest score of internal Intellectual Achievement
Responsibility of male and female students.
Ho4 There is no significant difference in the posttest score of external Intellectual Achievement
Responsibility of male and female students.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
The researcher assumes that:
1. Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy may have effect on internal General and Examination Anxiety among students
2. Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy may have effect on external General and Examination Anxiety among students
3. difference may exist in the posttest score of internal General and Examination Anxiety of male and female NCE students of Kaduna State College of Education
4. difference may exist in the posttest score of external Intellectual Achievement Responsibility of male and female NCE students of Kaduna State College of Education
1.7 Significance of the study
This research work has become a body of knowledge that will be relevant to various persons, particularly psychological therapists, teachers, school administrators, education policy makers, other researchers, parents and students. By publishing this research in a journal, making it available in the library and going on media, the findings of this work would be made available for the persons mentioned above.
The numerous benefits of the research will include enlightenment therapists and teachers are encouraged to carry out on the need for the treatment of General and Examination Anxiety of students and how to carry out so that academic performance of students can be improved in schools. It will also be guide for school and educational policies that ensure the improvement of learners‟ IAR through application REBT on students. This research will also provide referential material for data collection which can be used in further academic research by other scholar and students who will later embark on similar topics. It will also serve as source of reference for students‟ assignments and projects. Policy makers in education and school proprietors will also find this research as helpful as a source of inputs in making policies that would improve General and Examination Anxiety of the students and their Academic Performance.
1.8 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This investigation focused on the concept of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy and its effect on General and Examination Anxiety among NCE students.
The study was carried out in Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya which operates in two campuses of Gidan Waya and Kafanchan. The College is made up of five schools with each having several departments. The various schools include: School of Education,
School of General Studies, School of Science, School of Arts and Social Sciences, School of Technical and Vocational Education and School of Primary and Early Childhood Education.
The study is also delimited to School of Art and Social Science being the second largest school in the College. This investigation included male and female students as respondents.
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