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The study investigated the attitudes of parents’ towards girl-child education in Kaduna State as perceived by teachers and school principals. The population of the study consists of all the school principals and secondary school teachers in Kaduna State. The instrument used in collecting data was questionnaire. Four Null hypotheses were postulated and tested using percentages and standard deviation as descriptive and t-test as inferential statistics to test the opinions of the respondents. From the findings of this study, three hypotheses were rejected while one was accepted. It was however discovered that preference of male over female education is common in the society and poverty is a major factor in terminating girl-child education in Kaduna State.
In addition, it was discovered that government participation is still inadequate to facilitate change in the area. On these bases, the researcher recommends the urgent intervention of government to implement the laws governing girl-child education so as to enhance and change the negligence of girl-child education as provisioned in national policy on and provide equal access to education.
Background to the Study
The girl-child education has been a burning and continues issue in the developing countries of which Nigeria is one. The girl-child education can be compared to a coin which has two sides. This is because in the northern part of Nigeria, the girl-child is not encouraged to go to school, whereas in the Southern part of the country, reverse is the case. But culturally women are confined to their traditional roles with lots of sanctions imposed on them either by custom, norms or religion.
It has been revealed that the girl-child education has suffered a lot in the society as cited by Mohammed (2008). This has been the case since independence in 1960. However, in the sixties, the situation was really break because out of 10 school children that went to school beyond primary 4, only one as a girl. Missionary activities started in certain parts of northern Nigeria before the turn of the century. In 1860s, Dr. Baikie of Christian Missionary Society founded a settlement at Lokoja. A school was opened the same year and instruction was given in Hausa and Nupe languages right from the beginning.
The girl-child education in Kaduna state has been lagging behind all this while in terms of education one can wonder why the situation should persist like this in respects of the light of the clear provisions in National Policy on Education that education is a right for every Nigerian Child. The National Policy on Education (2004) also has as its 5th objective as the building of a “bright land full opportunities for all individual”.
Thus, The National Philosophy of Education of Nigeria is based on “the integration of the individual into a sound and effective citizen and to provide equal educational opportunities for all citizens of the Nation at primary, secondary and tertiary levels, both inside and outside the formal system”.
The global trends have also shown that Education of girl-child is input like
i. Universal Declaration in Tehran in 1968 on Human Rights which stresses education as a right of every individual irrespective of sex.
ii. The 1960 United Nations Article 10 of the Convention against women (CEDAW). Has a major aim of promoting gender equality in education. The above not withstanding however, shows the reality on the ground in
Kaduna state and Nigeria as a whole that there is the presence of discrimination against girl-child in the access to basic education. If this trend continues in Kaduna State, the developmental growth of the area would be hampered.
The Northern region which is so much dominated by the Hausas who have no interest in girl-child education as it was viewed exclusively for the male child. The girl-child was not only denied formal education, but also the Qur’anic education. The few girls that attempted school during Western education after the amalgamation in 1914 did that under duress.
Most of the girls grew up believing that life begins with hawking and ends up in early marriage. While the boys received rigorous training both in formal and informal education i.e. Qur’anic school, Farming and animal husbandry under the instruction of their fathers. The girl-child was undergoing training at home under the supervision of their mothers, they were taught how to take care of children, prepare food, make clothes, wash utensils and general cleanliness of their surroundings. Apart from these task, the girls had to assist their mothers in different trades and were finally prepared for their future roles as brides.
The problems of the lack of girl-child education emanates from the root of:
· The culture of the northerners
· Weak father figures and ignorant mothers who knew no better
· Early marriage
There are regional disparities in the level of girl-child access to basic education. A recent survey shows that a number of girl-children had no formal education in post primary schools in Kaduna State. Even though the case was slightly ease better than before.
The enrolment of children to primary, secondary, technical and tertiary institutions as upheld by Oleribe (2002) also discriminate against female gender. Male enrolment is more than girls in all levels of education. Out of the primary schools enrolment indicated an imbalance ratio as only of, in Kaduna State, 41% were girl- child and many ended up not going for secondary education. In all parts of the state girls lag behind boys in access to education. It is important to note that despite the progress made towards girl-child education in the developed and some parts of the world, years of neglect have left very high illiteracy rates for girl-child in many developing countries of the world.
Girls which are to remain in school up to higher institutions have not yet been able to and the situation arised because parents are not encouraging girl to be educated. Most of the girls in Kaduna State who were of school age and have completed primary education parades the street hawking items in other to prepare for early marriage. Even though there are educated girls in Kaduna State recently, the number can be much higher if adequate attention is given to eradicate the problem.
Statement of the Problem
This research is an assessment of parents attitudes towards girl-child education in Kaduna State as perceived by teachers and school principals. It quite understands that education is the bedrock of every society and it requires to be given to all without considering the gender aspects.
The problem of girl-child education is not a regional, state, National or continent but a global issue of concerned. Education is the most viable instrument by man to conquer his environment and charted his destiny. Girl-child education has been a burning and continuous issue in the developing countries of the world in which Nigeria is one. Its existing problem in Nigeria more especially in the Northern part of the country in which Kaduna State is one of the states and so it need to be clearly addressed. The problem as pointed out by Mohammed (2008) ranges from either girls of school ages hawk goods on the street as parents’ exploit them, a times, girls were engaged in early marriages, a times as a result of poverty and financial problem where some parents cannot afford to pay school fees for their children. In other cases, the problems emancipates from the fact that some parents considers educating girl child as waste of time for the sake of gender disparity or inferiority complex.
Girl child has suffered enough discrimination and is time to eradicates in equality or unequal right to education and provide equal access to education as provisioned in the National Policy on education. Parents needs to be enlighten on the importance of girl-child education and to be discouraged in engaging girl- child to early marriage and hawking of goods while teachers should handle girl- child with cares in school for enrolment and retention purpose in other to achieve the MDG’s.
It was based on the problems identified that the researcher therefore develop an instrument titled An Assessment of Parents’ Attitude towards girl- child education in Kaduna State as perceived by teachers and school principals.
Objectives of the Study
This research which is an assessment of parents’ attitudes towards girl- child education in Kaduna State as perceived by teachers and school principals seeks to identify the problems militating against the girl-child education in Kaduna State and wishes to accomplish the following objectives:
i. to determine if there is difference in the opinions of teachers and school principals with regards to the attitudes of parents’ towards
girl-child education in Kaduna State;
ii. to determine the influence of school activities on girl-child education in Kaduna State;
iii. to determine the influence of culture, tradition and religion on Girl- child Education in Kaduna State; and
iv. to determine the influence of government role on girl-child education in Kaduna State.
This research is an assessment of parents’ attitudes towards girl-child education in Kaduna State it and attempts to answer the following questions:
i. Is there any significant difference in the opinions of teachers and school principals on the attitude of parents’ towards Girl-Child Education in Kaduna State?
ii. Is there any significant difference in the opinions of teachers and school principals as regards the influence of school activities on Girl-Child Education in Kaduna State?
iii. Is there any significant difference in the opinions of teachers and school principals as regards the influence of culture, religion and tradition on Girl- Child Education in Kaduna State?
iv. Is there any significant difference in the opinions of teachers and school principals as regards the influence on government of Child education in Kaduna State?
The followings null hypotheses are formulated for the study”
i. There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers an school
principals on the attitudes of parents towards Girl-Child Education in Kaduna State.
ii. There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers and school principals as regards the influence of school activities on Girl-Child Education in Kaduna State.
iii. There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers and school principals as regards the influence of culture, tradition and religion on Girl-Child Education in Kaduna State.
iv. There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers and school principals as regards the influence of government on Girl- Child Education in Kaduna State
In this research, it is assumed that:
i. Girl child education is so important for the growth and development of Kaduna State and Nigeria as a whole.
ii. Girl-child education has been confronted with so many problems in Kaduna State.
iii. Parents’ attitude is one of the factors that determine progress of the girl- child education in Kaduna State.
iv. Girl-child education is a global phenomenon more especially in the developing countries that requires collective measures.
Significance of the Study
Research of this kind is of utmost Value. It is important since it is hoped that the outcome of the research will help educational planners, school administrators, teachers, policy makers, parents or guardians and all stakeholders to have a clear understanding of some fundamental issues related to girl-child education in Kaduna State. Through the findings and recommendations of this research, parents may be more enlightened on their responsibilities towards girl- child education in Kaduna State. It is also hoped that this will in-turn enhance girl-child education which will lead to their contributions to the development of Kaduna State and to participate fully in developing herself, siblings, husband, home and the whole nation and will not be misused, harassed, subjected and maltreated again. She will not suffer any further violence again. infact the benefits are innumerable.
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The study is to cover the whole of Kaduna state which consists of twenty three local government areas and twelve educational zones.
The study centers on the assessment of parents’ attitude towards girl- child education in the area and therefore its findings are mainly to the area of the study.
Due to time and financial constraints, the study is delimited to cover four zonal divisions out of the twelve in the states which were selected through random sampling procedure.
The zonal education divisions are:
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