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ld                                                  Development length

MU                             Ultimate test bending moment

Q                                Applied load

BS                                              Ultimate bond stress recommended in BS 8110 : 1997

cal                                          Theoretical bond stress

t                                                 Test bond stress

X                                Depth to neutral axis

                                Steel ratio, AS /bd

e                              Effective bar size

cu                                 Strain in concrete in compression

s                               Strain in tension reinforcement

                               Bond coefficient

As                               Area of steel

fs                                                 Stress in steel

ls                                                 Splice length

db                                             Nominal bar diameter

Atr                                             Area of transverse reinforcement

fcu                             Characteristics strength of concrete

av                              Shear span

St                                          Spacing of transverse reinforcement

Ecs + Ustr             Epoxy coated splice + uncoated stirrups

Ecs + Cstr             Epoxy coated splice + coated stirrups

Ucs + Nstr            Uncoated splice + no stirrup.


Table  1:         Cube compressive strength result on trial mix

Table  2:         Sieve analysis for fine aggregate

Table  3:         sieve analysis for coarse aggregate

Table  4:         Tensile test results

Table  5:         Beam parameters

Table  6:         Characteristics of hognestad stress block

Table  7:         Beam data

Table  8:       Strength achieved for control cubes

Table  9:       Beam test results


Figure 1:       Diagram showing side split failure

Figure 2:       V-notch failure

Figure 3:       Face-and-side split failure

Figure 4:       Pull out failure

Figure 5:       Beam with no transverse reinforcement in the splice region

Figure 6:       Beam with transverse reinforcement overlap

Figure 7:       Shear force and bending moment diagrams

Figure 8:       Schematic of test set-up

Figure 9:       Strain and stress distribution at failure

Figure 10:     Hognestad and Evans stress block………………………………………..

Figure 11:     Graph of sieve analysis for fine aggregate……………………………….

Figure 12:      Graph of sieve analysis for coarse aggregate………………………..

Figure 11:     Effect of coating of stirrups on bond efficiency………………..

          Figure 12:    Effect of coating of stirrups on bond efficiency……………………

          Figure 13:    Effect of coating of stirrups on bond efficiency…………………….


1.         Trial Mix

             (a) Sieve analysis of coarse aggregate for Trial mix

             (b) Batching of coarse aggregate by weight for Trial mix

             (C) Sieving of aggregate for Trial Mix

             (d)  Trial Mix freshly cast

2.           Compressive strength of trial mix

                (a) Weighing of Trial mix cube

                (b) Compression testing machine

                (c) Cube placed in compression testing machine

                (d) Cube being taken out after crushing

3.               Silt Test

                  (a) Sand and Salt Solution being mixed together

                  (b) Settling of particles in the measuring cylinder

4.                Epoxy coated reinforcement

                    (a) Mixing of the coating material

                    (b) Spraying of the reinforcement

                    (c) Epoxy coated reinforcement

                    (d) Coated steel bars kept in the lab

5.         Formwork in place

6.         Reinforcement cages placed inside the formwork.

7.         Slump test carried out in-situ

                     (a) Slump test being carried out

                     (b) Difference in height being measured

8.        Beam specimen freshly demoulded

9.        Curing process

10.      Tensile strength

                      (a) Tensile testing machine

                      (b) Reinforcement being fixed in machine

                      (c) Tensile machine gripping the reinforcement

                      (d) Result being printed out

11.      Crack pattern in beam with coated stirrups on coated splice region

                       (a) Splitting in the splice region.

                        (b) Cracks in the shear region.

12.       Crack pattern in beams without stirrups on uncoated splice region

                        (a) Splitting in the splice region.

                        (b) Cracks in the shear region.

13. Crack pattern in beams with uncoated stirrups on coated splice region

                        (a) Splitting in the splice region.

                        (b) Cracks in the shear region.

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