Get the complete project »
- The Complete Research Material is averagely 43 pages long and it is in Ms Word Format, it has 1-5 Chapters.
- Major Attributes are Abstract, All Chapters, Figures, Appendix, References.
- Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE.
- Full Access Fee: ₦4,000
1.1 BACKGROUNG OF STUDY
This is a genus of the family Euphorbiaceae. It was first identified in Central and Southern India in 18th century. It is called carry me seed, stone-breaker, wind breaker, gulf leaf flower or gala of wind, (Bharatiya 1992).
There are over 300 genera with over 5,000 species in the Euphorbiaceae world wide. The Phyllantus is one of the genus that falls under this enormous family. Phyllantus has about 750-800 species, found in tropical and subtropical regions. Green medicine is safe and more dependable than the costly synthetic drugs, many of which have adverse side effects (Joseph and Raj, 2010). The use of medicinal plants by man for the treatment of diseases has been in practice for a very long time. Screening of compounds obtained from plants for their pharmacological activity has resulted in the isolation of innumerable therapeutic agents.
Over 50% of all modern chemical drugs are of natural plant product origin and is essential in drug development programs of the pharmaceutical industry (Burton et. al 1983).
1.1.2 Phyllantus amarus (P. amarus)
P. amarus is an erect annual herb of not more than one and half feet tall and has small leaves and yellow flowers. It is a broad medicinal plant that has received world-wide recognition (Srividiya and Perival, 1995).
In herbal medicine, P. amarus has reportedly been used to treat jaundice, diabetes, otitis, diarrhea, swelling, skin ulcer, gastrointestinal disturbances and blocks DNA polymerase in the case of hepatitis B virus during reproduction, (Oluwafemi, and Debiri, 2008).
In Nigeria, it is called “Oyomokeisoamankedem” in Efik, “Iyin Olobe” in Yoruba and “Ebebenizo” in Bini (Etta, 2008). In traditional medicine, it is used for its hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic, antihypertensive, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti- microbial properties (Adeneye et al; 2006). The plant is also used in the treatment of stomach disorders, skin diseases and cold (Kokwaro, 1976; Iwu, 1993). It has anti-diarrhoea effect (Odetola and Akojenu, 2000). Its anti-viral activity against hepatitis B virus has been established (Thyagarajan et al; 1988, Wang et al; 1995), anti- carcinogenic (Joy and Kuttan, 1998), anti mutagenic activities (Joy and Kuttan, 1998), antiplasmodial (Soh et al. 2009).
Plants contain numerous constituents, some tend to possess some level of toxicity. Cases of this toxicity in plants have been reported (Santox et al; 1995, Shaw et al; 1997, Kaplowitz, 1997). P. amarus has been classified among plants with a low potential for toxicity, with an LD50 averaging 2000mg/kg 1day (Krithika and Verma, 2009).
1.1.3 Phyllantus niruri (P. niruri)
P. niruri is commonly called stone breaker, also known as “Chanca piedra”. It belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. P. niruri is similar to P. amarus. It is a wide spread tropical plant commonly found in coastal areas that grows 40-70cm tall (Chukwuma, 2012).
In Nigeria, it is called enyikwonwa and ngwu in Ibo, Oyokeso amanke edem in Efik, geeron- tsemtsaayee in Hausa, ehin olobe and yin-olobe in Yoruba (Chukwuma, 2012).
Although P. niruri is considered a problematic weed to formers it is a valuable medicinal plant. (Oudhia and Tripathi, 2002), and holds a reputed position in both Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicine. Recently, it has attracted the attention of researchers, because of its hepatoprotective (ability to prevent damage to the liver) properties. No effective specific therapy is available for viral Hepatitis but P. niruri has shown clinical efficiency in viral Heptatis B (Paranjape, 2001).
P. niruri is an annual plant, its stem is angular with numerous distichous, ellipticoblong leaves. Flowers are yellow and very numerous; monoecious with 1-3 staminate flowers and solitary pistillate flower borne axillary. Fruits capsule, very small, globose, smooth, seeds 3-gonous, longitudinally ribbed on the back. Seed to seed cycle occurs in two or four weeks (Caius 1986), (Agharkar 1991). Its root, leaves, fruits, milky juice and whole plants are used as medicine. According to Ayurvedic system of medicine it is considered acrid, cooling, aleixipharmic and useful in thirst, bronchitis, leprosy, anemia, urinary disharge, anuria, boiliousness, asthma, for hiccups, and as a diuretic. According to Unani system of medicine, it is stomachic and good for sores and useful in Chromic dysentery. Fruits useful for tubercular ulcers, wounds, sores, scabies and ring worm (Agharkar 1991, Krishanamurty 1993). The fresh root is believed to be an excellent remedy for jaundice.
In many parts of India, it is commonly used for the treatment of snake bite. The active compounds phyllanthin and hypophyllanthim, nirtetralin and phyltetralin have been isolated from leaves, (Rastogi and Mehrotra, 1991). The plant is used as a fish poison. In many parts of India especially in deserts, the roots mixed with Commiphora mukul are given to camels to cure indigestion. The decoction of leaves and stem are used for dying cotton black, (Singh et al; 1996).
P. niruri is one of the medicinal plants used to treat malaria in India and Nigeria. P. niruri has been used traditionally to treat various illnesses including renal stones, gastrointestinal disturbance, cough, hepatitis, gonoorhea, fever and malaria. It has also been reported to posses hypoglycemic activity (Hukuri, et al; 1988), angiotension converting enzyme inhibition (Ueno, et al; 1988), lipid lowering activity (Khanna, et al; 2002), anti HIV activity (Qian cutron, et al; 1996) and anti cancer activity (Giridharan, et al; 2002).
1.2 Aim and objectives
This study is aimed at showing which of the plants above is more effective in the treatment of diseases caused by micro-organisms based in the natural products present in them.
The specific objecti ves include;
a. Determination of antibacterial effect of P. amarus and P. niruri.
b. Determination of anti fungal effect of P. amarus and P. niruri.
You either get what you want or your money back. T&C Apply
You can find more project topics easily, just search
SIMILAR CHEMISTRY FINAL YEAR PROJECT RESEARCH TOPICS
» CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION Many of the developing countries including African countries like Nigeria practice traditional medicine as its main sourc...Continue Reading »
2. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF BOREHOLE WATER AND SACHET WATER IN OWERRI MUNICIPAL, IMO STATE» ABSTRACT Three types of sachet water samples and three types of borehole water samples all from Owerri Municipal, Imo State were collected and analyze...Continue Reading »
» CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Polyurethane foam otherwise known as expanded polymer products are group of materials developed as gotten by there action bet...Continue Reading »
4. A STUDY OF GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THEREFORE ATTITUDE OF STUDENTS TO SCIENCE SUBJECTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS» 1.1 Background to the problem Until the later half of the twentieth century, the different roles of men and women in society in the western world rema...Continue Reading »
5. ASSESSMENT OF CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) LEVEL IN ENUGU METROPOLIS MONITORING INDUSTRIAL AND RESIDENTIAL AREA» ABSTRACT Air pollutions pollutant showed that the extent of spreading depends on the motor vehicle traffic population of the area. This pollution stro...Continue Reading »
6. SUGGESTION OF POSSIBLE METHODS OF ELIMINATING STAINS ESPECIALLY STUBBORN AND TOUGH ONES IN THE SURFACE OF THE TEXTILE FABRICS WITHOUT CAUSING ANY DAMA...» CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of Study According to Bob Flexner (1999) stain is a discolouration that can be clearly distingui...Continue Reading »
» ABSTRACT Euphorbia balsamifera plant belongs to the family of Euphorbiaceae. Leaves, stems and roots of Euphorbia balsamifera were extracted using eth...Continue Reading »
8. DETERMINATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL RESIDUES IN SOIL OF SELECTED TRANSFORMER MAINTENANCE WORKSHOPS IN KADUNA AND ZARIA METROPOLIS, NIGERIA» ABSTRACT As effective as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may be in achieving thermal stability as coolant in transformer oils; spills, decommissionin...Continue Reading »
9. THE EFFECT OF PESTICIDES DICHLORODIPHENYL TRICHLOROEYHANE (D.D.Y) AND BENZENE HEXACHRORIDE (BHC) ON THE MICROFLORA OF THE THREE TYPES OF SOIL.» ABSTRACT The effect of pesticides, chchlorodipheny trichloroethane (DDY) and Benzene hexaxhoride (BHc) on the microflora of the three types of soil (l...Continue Reading »
10. THE PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM SUGARCANE BAGASSE BY THERMAL METHOD.» CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study Activated carbon also called activated charcoal is a carbonaceous, highly porous adsorptive m...Continue Reading »