Get the complete project »
- The Complete Research Material is averagely 52 pages long and it is in Ms Word Format, it has 1-5 Chapters.
- Major Attributes are Abstract, All Chapters, Figures, Appendix, References.
- Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE.
- Full Access Fee: ₦4,000
Caffeine is an odorless, slightly bitter organic compound found mostly in beverages such as coffee or tea and in chocolate. It is the most widely used “mind-altering drug” in the world, though it is considered safe and is mostly unregulated. Caffeine acts as a mild stimulant on the nervous system, aiding in alertness. Caffeine is also included in many weight loss supplements due to its reputation of acting as an appetite suppressant and in stimulating thermogenesis. A number of over the counter pain relievers, headache remedies and antihistamines contain caffeine.
Caffeine is a compound that is produced naturally in the many plants and nuts. Although it is widely available without a prescription, caffeine is defined as a drug because it stimulates the central nervous system, causing increased alertness and giving most people a temporary energy and mood boost. Caffeine is known to stimulate thermogenesis, one of the ways the body generates heat and energy from digested food. Caffeine may also act as an appetite suppressant and as a diuretic.
There are many sources of caffeine available on the market today. In addition to being found in coffee, tea, energy waters, cocoa and carbonated beverages, caffeine is also found in a variety of chocolates. It is also present in a number of weight loss supplements in the form of kola nut seeds, bissey nut, guarana, citrus aurantlum extract and yerba mate. It is important to know what form of caffeine is in any diet product you purchase as some do come with safety warnings. It is also important to avoid mixing too many forms of caffeine in one formula as this can lead to restlessness, sleeplessness and heart irregularities.
Kola cola is common name for a genus of about 125 species of evergreen trees (trees that certain foliage throughout the year). It is a native to tropical areas of the world. Kola trees are best known for their seeds or nuts which are rich in caffeine and used in the manufacturing of carbonated soft drinks known as kola beverages.1
Kola trees belong to the cacao family sterculiaceae. The main species grown for their seed production are classified as kola nitida and kola acuminate.2They are classified into these groups on the basis of the amount of cotyledons they have: kola nitida is dicotyledonous while kola acuminate has more than two cotyledons. Thses are two varieties of kola nitida which are rubra and alba. 3,4
Economically, the most important kola species are those cultivated in tropical; countries for their caffeine –rich nuts.1 Harvested by hand, the brown nuts, which resemble chestnuts and have an aroma. Like that of nutmeg are separated from the follicles and sun-dried, after which they are ready for shipment. Kola forms a part of social and religious customs in West Africa. Kola is one of the major sources of caffeine. Humans have consumed caffeine since the Stone Age.5 Early peoples found that chewing the seeds, bark, or leaves of certain plants had the effects of easing fatigue, stimulating awareness, and elevating one's mood. Only much later was it found that the effect of caffeine was increased by steeping such plants in hot water. Global consumption of caffeine has been estimated at 120,000 tones per year,6 making it the world's most popular psychoactive substance. This amounts to one serving of a caffeinated beverage for every person every day. Caffeine is a central nervous system and metabolic stimulant,7 and is used both recreationally and medically to reduce physical fatigue and restore mental alertness when unusual weakness or drowsiness occurs. Caffeine and other methylxanthine derivatives are also used on newborns to treat apnea and correct irregular heartbeats. Caffeine stimulates the central nervous system first at the higher levels, resulting in increased alertness and wakefulness, faster and clearer flow of thought, increased focus, and better general body coordination, and later at the spinal cord level at higher doses.8 Once inside the body, it has a complex chemistry, and acts through several mechanisms as described below.
Many cultures have legends that attribute the discovery of such plants to people living many thousands of years ago.Muslims consider kola nuts to be sacred and incorporate them in ceremonial and social occasions. When chewed kola nuts taste bitter initially but leave a sweet, lingering aftertaste.
1.2 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF KOLANUTS
The analysis of the three predominant species k. acuminata and k. nitida showed that crude protein range from 3.9-6.7%. kola contains between 1.0 and 1.2 caffeine. Kola contains a glycoside kolanine, 9% protein, 2% fat, 74% carbohydrate on fresh bases.
1.3 USES OF KOLANUTS
Use of the kola nut, like the coffee berry and tea leaf, appears to have ancient origins.
It is chewed in many West African cultures, individually or in a social setting, to restore vitality and ease hunger pangs.
In 1911, kola became the focus of one of the earliest documented health scares when the US government seized 40 barrels and 20 kegs.
It is also used in the confectionary industries.
Kola is also used in masticatory and its extract is used in soft drink manufacturing.
In addition to their use in s of drink manufacture, kola nuts are used in traditional African folk medicine to cure stomach ulcers, diarrhea, dysentery and other ills.
It is used to produce kola wine and also incorperated into chocolate drinks.
Kola forms a part of social and religious customs in West Africa.
Kola is a source of caffeine and also essential oils used in the confectionary industries.
Caffeine is a bitter, white crystalline xanthine alkaloid and a psychoactive stimulant drug. Caffeine was discovered by a German chemist, Friedrich Ferdinand Runge. He coined the term kaffein, a chemical compound in coffee (the German word for which is Kaffee), which in English became caffeine (and changed to Koffein in German).9 Caffeine belongs to the family of heterocyclic compounds known as purines.
The structure of caaffeine and other purine derivative can be shown in the figure above .
It has the systematic name 3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione; it is also known as 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine, and 1,3,7-trimethyl-2,6-dioxopurine. Caffeine was discovered in coffee in 1820. In 1838, it was established that theine discovered in tea in 1827 is identical to caffeine.10
The exact composition of cola nitida have been shown to include- xathine alkaloid (caffeine, theophylline, theobronine) tamin, betaine and kolanine.11 The bitter taste is due to the presence of tamin and betaine while the reddish stain extracted is the kolatine and kolanine content. It occurs in the fruit and bark of a number of plants; like tea leaves, coffee, cocoa, kola nuts, beans and mate-leave. Its molecular formula is C8H10O2N4 with 28.85% nitrogen content.
STRUCTURE OF CAFFEINE
1.4.1 PROPERTIES OF CAFFEINE
1,3,7-trimethyl- 1H-purine- 2,6(3H,7H)-dione
1,3,7-trimethylxanthine, trimethylxanthine, methyltheobromine, 7-methyltheophylline, theine, mateine, guaranine
Odorless, white needles or powder
1.23 g/cm3, solid
227–228 °C (anhydrous); 234–235 °C (monohydrate)
178 °C subl.
Solubility in water
2.17 g/100 ml (25 °C)
18.0 g/100 ml (80 °C)
67.0 g/100 ml (100 °C)
3.64 D (calculated)
1.4.2 CLASSIFICATION OF CAFFEINE
Caffeine can be classified as an alkaloid, a term used for substances produced as end products of nitrogen metabolism in some plants. The chemical formula is C 8 H 10 N 4 O 2 . Caffeine has a molar mass of 194.19 grams (6.85 ounces). It is soluble in water and in many organic solvents, and it appears in pure form as white crystals.
1.4.3 SOLUBILITY OF CAFFEINE
Caffeine is not a highly water soluble substance and, therefore, has a moderately slow release from
chewing gum. Caffeine is 2.1% soluble in water at room temperature, 15% soluble in water at 80oC, and
40% soluble in boiling water.
1.5 SOURCES AND OCCURANCE OF CAFFEINE
You either get what you want or your money back. T&C Apply
You can find more project topics easily, just search
SIMILAR CHEMISTRY FINAL YEAR PROJECT RESEARCH TOPICS
1. ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY AND STABILITY OF ETHANOL EXTRACTS OF CONOIDES MILLER AND LONGUM NIGRUM (CAPSICUM ANNUUM).» ABSTRACT Available synthetic colour additives used in food have been shown to exhibit genotoxic effects and pose several potential health hazards to h...Continue Reading »
Item Type & Format: Project Material - Ms Word | 120 pages | Instant Download | Chapter 1-5 | CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT
2. A STUDY OF GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THEREFORE ATTITUDE OF STUDENTS TO SCIENCE SUBJECTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS» 1.1 Background to the problem Until the later half of the twentieth century, the different roles of men and women in society in the western world rema...Continue Reading »
Item Type & Format: Project Material - Ms Word | 80 pages | Instant Download | Chapter 1-5 | CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT
3. COMPARISON OF ACADAMIC PERFORMANCE OF JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN CHEMISTRY IN EXTERNAL EXAMINATIONS FROM 2003-2007» Abstract The purpose of the study was to compare the performance between urban and rural school students in the External examinations in basic chemist...Continue Reading »
Item Type & Format: Project Material - Ms Word | 88 pages | Instant Download | Chapter 1-5 | CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT
4. OPTIMIZATION OF BIODIESEL FROM COCONUT (Cocos nucifera) SEED OIL» TABLE OF CONTENTSDedication………………………………………………………………………….. iiCertification…………………...Continue Reading »
Item Type & Format: Project Material - Ms Word | 72 pages | Instant Download | Chapter 1-5 | CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT
5. COMBINED EFFECTS OF PLAY-SIMULATIONS AND TEACHING WITH ANALOGY ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN CHEMISTRY» ABSTRACT Excessive use of the lecture method in teaching science to secondary school students has been faulted by science educators: It leads to low a...Continue Reading »
Item Type & Format: Project Material - Ms Word | 122 pages | Instant Download | Chapter 1-5 | CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT
6. OPTIMISATION OF BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM SOME PLANTS WASTE USING ACIDS PRETREATMENT» ABSTRACT The potentials of Saw dust, Rice husk and Groundnut shells were investigated for bioethanol production. The substrates were pretreated using ...Continue Reading »
Item Type & Format: Project Material - Ms Word | 67 pages | Instant Download | Chapter 1-5 | CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT
7. REMOVAL OF HEAVY METAL IONS FROM WASTE WATER USING A GROUNDNUT SHELL AND TEA BAG AS A NATURAL ADSORBENT» CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION Reduplication is a morphological process in which the root of a word or a part of it is repeated. In many languages, redu...Continue Reading »
Item Type & Format: Project Material - Ms Word | 22 pages | Instant Download | Chapter 1-5 | CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT
8. ASSESSMENT OF CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) LEVEL IN ENUGU METROPOLIS MONITORING INDUSTRIAL AND RESIDENTIAL AREA» ABSTRACT Air pollutions pollutant showed that the extent of spreading depends on the motor vehicle traffic population of the area. This pollution stro...Continue Reading »
Item Type & Format: Project Material - Ms Word | 69 pages | Instant Download | Chapter 1-5 | CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT
9. PREPARATION OF BUFFER SOLUTION: “TRIS BUFFER SOLUTION”» ABSTRACT Tris buffer solution was prepared in the laboratory by dissolving 4.6g of boric acid, 6.5g of EDTA and 60.5g of trisma base in 1000cm3 of dis...Continue Reading »
Item Type & Format: Project Material - Ms Word | 52 pages | Instant Download | Chapter 1-5 | CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT
10. THE EFFECT OF PESTICIDES DICHLORODIPHENYL TRICHLOROEYHANE (D.D.Y) AND BENZENE HEXACHRORIDE (BHC) ON THE MICROFLORA OF THE THREE TYPES OF SOIL.» ABSTRACT The effect of pesticides, chchlorodipheny trichloroethane (DDY) and Benzene hexaxhoride (BHc) on the microflora of the three types of soil (l...Continue Reading »
Item Type & Format: Project Material - Ms Word | 72 pages | Instant Download | Chapter 1-5 | CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT