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1.1 Background of the study
theNigeria as an independent nation was characterized by good governance and the principle of sustainable management of human and material resources in the 60’s and 70’s, which made up governed to experience. Situation of improved social and economic condition which eras attributed to the affordable cost of energy products such as petroleum and electricity.However in the energy 80’s and aptill date the services of government that has piloted the affairs of this great nation (Nigeria) even those that has failed to realize that energy products such as petroleum and electricity products are the mainstay the entire citizenry of the country this is evident in the level of mal-administration which ahs been recorded in the energy sector in recent times thereby making the cost of these products to be above the reach of the and users.
is the largest oil producer in Africa and the elevent largest producer in the
World, the main stay of Nigeria economy is the petroluem sector. The Niger
Delta region has an area of over twenty eight thousand square kilometers, the
Niger Delta area has as part of its features, and meandering waterways. A large
part of the area consists of salt water swamp parts of the fresh water further
inland have limited agricultural possibilities, the region derived the name
(Niger Delta) from being situated at the mouth of the River, Niger, which could
be traced back to early 15th century. Comprising the people of the region are
the Ijaws (who form the largest ethnic group in the areas, the Itsekiri,
Urohobos, Efiks, Ibibios and other smaller ethnic groups. Before the creation
of the Nigerian state, economic activities of the Niger Delta in pre-colonial
days entailed mainly export of salt and fish to its hinterlands. In the 18th
century, when slave trade was at its peak, the region was West Africa’s largest
slave exporting area, and this was enhanced by its nearness to the sea. Slave
dealers, however, diverted the palm oil trade in the 19th century when slave
trade declined. The colonial era gave birth to Nigeria, with the Niger Delta
situated at the Southern-Eastern part of the country. As at 1975, three states
were under the region namely Rivers, Bendel, and Cross River states, with two
Igbp states, Anambra and Imo as the hinterland following the creation of more
states and a redefinition of the areas to be included in the Niger Delta states
were Abia, AkwaIbom, Bayelsa, Cross River, Delta, Edo, Imo, Ondo and Rivers
state.the critical issue of oil pipelines vandalism and its effects on the
socioeconomic development in Nigerian society. Nigeria discovered crude oil deposit
in large quantity in the Niger Delta region in 1956. By 1958, Shell D‟Arcy had
discovered crude oil in twelve areas in the region of which Oloibiri, Afam and
Bonu were the most promising. Oil production started in Oloibiri in early 1958
with 3, 000 barrels per day (Ekpu, 2009). Since then, enormous deposits of
crude petroleum oil have been found on-shore and off-shore in many parts of the
Niger Delta region and father eastwards towards Ohaji and Egbema axis. By 1997,
Nigeria‟s proven oil reserve was put as 13.5 billion barrels. However, the
estimated recoverable oil was put at 22.5 billion barrels of oil in the region
from a total of 164 blocks(Inyang, 2004). In 2015, however, Nigeria was ranked
as the 10th largest oil producer in the world with proven oil reserve of about
36 billion barrels, and gas reserve of about 185 Trillion Cubit Feet (TCF),
among others (Johnson, 2015). It should be noted that crude petroleum oil has
been discovered further inland along Anambra River plain and its production had
commenced under Orient Petroleum. This has made Anambra state to join the
coveted league of oil producing states in the country. In February 2016,
Nigeria was reported to have devised a strategy to maintain crude oil
production at 2.2 million barrels per day. The 2016 Federal budget was said to
have been pegged at this level of crude oil production. Thus, the Minister of
State for Petroleum Resources and Group Managing Director, Nigeria National
Petroleum Corporation, NNPC, Dr. IbeKachikwu was reported to have affirmed that
the county‟s oil production would be 2.2mbpd for the month of February 2016. He
was reported to have further stated that the country would keep striving to
increase crude oil production to meet local demand and not necessarily to sell
it in international market. He reportedly noted that Nigeria has considerable
local demand for refined petroleum products and, as such, the demand for the
four domestic refineries was at least 500, 000 barrels of crude oil per day
(See Okoromadu, 2016).
Furthermore the masses been avenue of the ugly tend and also considering the abundance which the nation enjoys in this sector decided it embark on vandalization as the solution to their energy problem.
Basically our focus an this research work is power holding company Nigerian Ltd which in all ramification as representing the energy sector.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
present research work provides the following problems
First the problems of bad government or administration that couldn’t manage the energy sector properly.Secondly the problems of vandals who are not aware of the hazards that are associated with vandalization.
the problems of illicitly high cost of energy products.
Also the research work present the problems of testable economy due to vandalization Finally the problem of reduced gross domestic products GDP, due to loss of greater percentage the national income to the incidence of vandalization.
PURPOSE OR OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The proposed research under
taken has the following objectives
i. The government on the need to work up to their responsibility of providing affordable and qualitative energy products
ii. It is also aimed at enlightening the masses on the dangers that are associated with vandalization
iii. The research work has the objective of encouraging the independent marketers and other stakeholder in the energy sector to assist the government in checking the activities of vandals.
iv. The research work is medium for establishing the huge amount that is lost annually to vandalization
v. Finally it is designed also to establish the direct relationship that exists between vandalization and socio-economic development of a nation.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
During the course of the research work the following:
1. To what extent has incidence of vandalization hindered the socio-economic development of Nigeria?
What is the role of the government in putting an-end to cases of vandalization?
3. Who is to blame for vandalization the public or private sector?
4. To what extent does vandalization determines the supply of energy products with reference to price and quantity
5. Are there other means of advancing socio economic development rather then the energy sector?
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY (DELIMITATION)
My scope of study no this research work is power holding company Nigeria Ltd Enugu the recent research that has been conducted round the energy sector reveals that the above mentioned organization has experienced high incident rate of vandalization. And as such posses the basic features for the discussion of the research cope.
1.6 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The present research work has the following significance:
i. It will help to reduce cases of vandalization
It will help the country to experience accelerated socio economic
iii. It has significance of exposing the risks associated with vandalization, especially possibility of loss of life
iv. The research encourages improved public and private partnership to reduce vandalization
v. Finally to promote GDP growth for sustainable economic
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
During the course of the research work the following terms were identified and defined appropriately energy vandals vandalization socio economic development mal-administration government policy partnership sector private sector etc.
i. Energy: This is the driven force that is generated by the consumption or utilization of electricity and petroleum products
ii. Vandals: These are the individuals that embarks on vandalization of energy installation
This is the process of destroying our energy installations, which brings about
scarcity of the energy products.
iv. Socio economic: This is the combination of social and economic activities to attain sustainable national growth
v. Development: This is the meaningful and sustainable progress that is experienced by country
vi. Mal-administration: This is the situation of improper management of the resources of the nation
vii. Government: This is the machinery that is established to manage the affairs of a nation
viii. Policy: This is the decision that is taken by the government in the execution of their plans
ix. Partnership: This is the relationship between the public and private sector which yields dividend
x. Public sector: This is the aspect of the nations economy that is managed by the government.
xi. Private sector: This is the aspect of the economy that is controlled by private individuals
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc. Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter. Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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