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This research was on Performance Appraisal as a Managerial Tool for Employee Performance (A study of University of Uyo, Uyo). The objectives for this study was: to identify how effective is the use of performance appraisal as a tool for determining promotion, salary increase training: To as certain how performance appraisal is use in measuring performance of the employees. Questionnaire was the major instrument used to collect data from three hundred respondents out of the sample size of three hundred and forty eight. The total population was two thousand seven hundred and ten. The hypotheses formulated for this study was: There is no significant relationship between performance appraisal and employee performance. It was tested using chi-square (c2) statistical tool. Based on the analysis, the researcher found out that lack of basic performance appraisal techniques impede employee performances in the organization and there was no feedback process of the evaluation scheme to determine the strength and weakness of employee performance. Based on this findings, the researcher makes the following recommendations: the management should organize courses for personnel department on how to carry out a successful evaluation of employees; every evaluation should be based on a previously set standard; performance appraisal should be done on a routine basic and not occasionally: methods of appraisal should be varied from to time for effective result.
1.0 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
In any organization of all the activities in Human Resources Management (HRM) performance appraisal is arguably the most contentious and lest popular among those who are involved (Schullet and Raudalls, 1984). Assessment is the process by which data are collected and reviewed about an individual employees past and current work behaviour and performance. This allows appraisal which can be seen as an analysis of overall capabilities and potential, allowing a decision to be made in line with a purpose (John and Jeffry 1999). As the coming system indicates, performance appraisal has many facts. It is an exercise in observation and Judgement, it is a feedback process, and it is an organizational intervention. It is a measurement process as well as an intensely emotional process (Wayne 1992) performance appraisal and review is the formal, systematic assessment of how ell employees are performing their jobs in relation to established standards and the communication of that assessment to employees. (Wendell 1994). A performance appraisal is a review and discussion of an employee’s performance of assigned duties and responsibilities. The appraisal is based on results obtained by the employer in his/her job, not on the employee’s personality characteristics. The appraisal measures skills and accomplishments with reasonable accuracy and uniformity. It provides a way to help identify area for performance enhancement and to help promote professional growth it should not, however be considered the supervision’s only communication tool open lines of communication throughout the year help to make effective working relationships (Thomas 1987).
Performance of an employee is evaluated (Generally by in terms of quality, quantity, cost, and time) typically by the corresponding manager or supervisor. A performance appraisal is a part of quilding and managing career development. It is the process of obtaining analyzing, and recording information about the relative worth of an employee to the organization. (Rerrence 2004).
As Barlow 1989 succinctly put it: “Institutionally elaborated system of management appraisal and development are significant thetoric’s in the apparatus of bureaucratic control”.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In recent times, globalization and economic attainment requires effective and efficient utilization of resources which includes human, materials and capital. This calls for the need to safeguard waste, deterioration, among others, as well boast the performance of employee by effective they monitoring activities within the Nigerian economy is far below expectation as organization performs below average compared to other developing countries our contemporary organization operation activities are not properly monitored, proper feed back is not administered to check actual performance against expected outcome, and this has become a very serious hindrance to the performance of any organization. It is believed that if performance of any organization is not oppressed, the inevitable outcome will eventually lead to inefficiency, low productivity, waste of resources, and as well as poor overall performance of the organization.
The solution to the problem:
1) How effective is performance appraisal in determining promotion, salary increase and training of employees?
2) What are the lapes encounter in the conducting performance appraisal by organization?
3) How can performance appraisal be measured in organization?
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objective of this research work generally is to find out how performance appraisal as a management tool is used to measure employee performance in university of uyo, uyo and seeks specifically to:
i) Identify how effective is the use of performance appraisal as a tool for determining promotion, salary increase and training.
ii) Ascertain how performance appraisal is used in measuring performance of the employees.
iii) Critically examine the advantages and disadvantages associated with the use of performance appraisal.
iv) Ascertain the basic lapes in the techniques of performance appraisal used by the organization.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Recognizing the fact that for the best and worst levels of employee performance, a manager of management is ever inclined to make comments. The researchers is curious to ask some sticking questions which is hope would bring clarity of some doubts on the validity of performance appraisal as a tool for measuring employee performance. And these question are:
i) How effective is the use of performance appraisal a tool for determining promotions, salary decrease and training?
ii) What are the basic techniques of performance appraisal used in university of uyo?
iii) What are the basic lapses in the techniques of performance appraisal used by the organization?
iv) Should performance appraisal be used in measuring performance of the employees?
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
In this study the following research hypothesis is formulated in a null form.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between performance appraisal and employee performance.
H1: There is a significant relationship between performance appraisal and low employee performance.
H2: There is a significant relationship between performance appraisal and promotions, salary decrease and training.
H3: There is no significant relationship between performance appraisal and promotions salary decrease and training.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The interest of studying various approaches used by management in measuring performance is crucial not only for control purpose but also for possible adjustment that keeps the organization in line with the present state of are. Thus, in this work, the study will cut across the three levels of management assessing the basic tools used in measuring, performance and how effective they are. And then, trying to survey the use of performance appraisal in the process, as applicable to both senior and junior employees of university of uyo, uyo.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The whole process of appraisal evaluation seeks to encourage high level employees motivation. It also let poor performers know their lackluster performance needs improvement. This study therefore is of vital importance to the organization effectiveness which the result will help uniuyo, in developing an appropriate performance standard, and to appraise the overall efficiency of employees in the organization. They study could also be of help to other researchers in this subject as a reference point who might wish to carry out further or fresh research in this topic.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The research work is limited to the university of uyo, administrative system, hence the observations and recommendation can be only applicable to the university of uyo, and not a manufacturing or other service oriented organization.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
The research work is organized in five chapters. chapter one deals with the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research hypothesis, scope of the study, significance of the study, limitation of the study definition of terms and historical background chapter two is the literature review. In chapter three, the design of the study is presented, while the data collected four, here the work is summarized and interpreted and finally in chapter five, recommendation and conclusion are equally made in this chapter.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1) HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: This refers to all activities that are undertaken by organization to influence individual employment and the job they perform. The intention is to match the abilities and motivations of employees with the requirements and rewards of the job.
2) PERFORMANCE: It is an evaluation of the result of a person’s behaviour it involves determining how well of poorly a person has accomplished a task of done a job.
3) EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE: This is the extent to which an employee provides high quality work of job to the organization.
4) EFFECTIVENESS: The ability to determine appropriate objectives or attend a specific goal.
5) Performance appraisal: This refers to a tool an organization use to maintain and enhance productivity and facilitates progress towards strategic goals.
1.10 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF UNIVERSITY OF UYO, UYO
The University of Uyo was established October 1, 1991 by the federal government of Nigeria. The University of Uyo inherited students, staff, academic programmes and the entire facilities of the erstwhile university of cross river state established by cross River State in 1983. Academic activities commenced during the 1991/92 Academic session.
THE VISION: As a center for academic excellence, the university of Uyo Akwa Ibom State. Nigeria shall strive towards sustainable human and technological development through the utilization of the vast resources available within its environs in teaching, research, community service and problem solving ventures without prejudice to maintaining a friendly environment.
THE MISSION: The University of Uyo Akwa Ibom State Nigeria shall be a centre of excellence in teaching, learning and research through the development, deployment and retention of sound scholarship. The rich culture heritage of Nigeria shall be promoted. The economic growth of the country shall be sustained through active development in science and technology with sensitivity and response to global environmental changes.
LOCATION: In the heart of uyo, capital of Akwa Ibom State Nigeria’s second largest oil producing state. uyo is easily accessible by road or air via the international airport. Currently, it operates from two temporary Campus the main campus which accommodates the central Administration, faculties of Arts, Education, social sciences, National and Applied sciences pharmacy and the post graduate school. The Annex campus is home for the faculties of Agriculture, Business Administration, Law, Environmental studies and General studies. The permanent site of the university along Nwaniba road, uyo is about 4.5 kilometer from the city centre and covers an area of about 1,443 hectares. Its home of the faculty of engineering and construction of the administrative block hostels and other buildings are going on at the site.
THE LIBRARY: The library has an active collection of above 46,745 volumes and handles about 408,977 lending and reference enquires annually. Current journals stand at 271 representing all disciplinary interests. The library is equipped with modern computers and has a reading space of 970.51 metres with seating capacity for 698. Currently, there are four main divisions. Acquisition, lending, processing and Research. The research division comprise reference, serials, special collections and government collections. The special collection is comprised of Essien, Africana and Government collection. Acquisition and processing selects and orders library materials and deal directly with Readers and regulates the use library materials. It also handles reference questions. The office of university librarian provides data for planning budgeting, control and co-ordination of the entire library.
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