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CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The importance of Training and Development is obvious given the growing complexity of the work environment, the rapid change in organization and advancement in technology, among other things. Training and development helps to ensure that organizational members possess the knowledge and skill they need to perform their jobs effectively; take on new responsibilities, and adapt to changing conditions. Despite the recognition of the importance of training by management experts and government are expressed in white papers on various reforms in Nigeria, the experience of manpower training and development in the Nigerian public service has been more of ruse and waste. Until recently there has been a general resistance to investment in training in the public service because of the belief that “employee hired under a merit system must be presumed to be qualified, that there were already trained for their job, and that if this was not so, it was at fault” (Stahl, 1976).
The assumption has been jettisoned as the need for training became obvious both in the private and the public sectors. Many organizations have come to recognize that training offers a way of “developing skills, enhancing productivity and quality of work, and building worker loyalty to the firm”. Indeed, the importance of training has become more obvious given the growing complexity of the work environment, the rapid change in organizations and technological advancement which further necessitates the need for training and development of personnel to meet the challenges.
Training and Development helps to ensure that organizational members possess the knowledge and skills they need to perform their jobs effectively, take on new responsibilities and adapt to changing conditions (Jones, George and Hill, 2000). It was further argued that training “help improve quality customer satisfaction, productivity, morale, management succession, business development and profitability”. Elaborating further on the importance of Human Resource Development (HRD), the International Labour Office (2000) affirmed that development and training improves their trainees’ “prospects of finding and retaining a job, improves their productivity at work, their income-earning capacity and their living standards and widens their career choices and opportunities”.
Management experts also argued that a major function of a manager is to develop people and to direct, encourage and train subordinates for optimum utilization Stahl (1986). Training helps prepare employees for certain jobs that are unique to the public sector. Specifically on Nigeria the Public Service Review Commission (PSRC) report in 1974 emphasized the importance of training and development. A result oriented public service will need to recruit and train specialized personnel. The new public service will require professionals who possess the requisite skill and knowledge training should be part of a comprehensive education planning programmes of all the aspects of personnel management perhaps the most important for us in Nigeria is training.
Three decades after, another reform endeavour (the 1988 civil reforms) emphasized obligatory.
1.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF NIGER STATE POLYTECHNIC
The present Niger State Polytechnic Zungeru has its originin in the defunct Zungeru College of Advanced Studies (ZUCAS). It was established in 1979 by the Niger State Government through Edict No 7 of 1979. It was temporarily located at Bida. The primary objective of establishing the institution includes: the training of intermediate (middle level) manpower, and preparation of student for entry into the Universities through externally conducted examinations such as IJMBE.
It September, 1984, under the directives of the then Niger State Governor, Colonel David A. Mark, the institution was moved from Bida to its present permanent site Zungeru, the acclaimed forgotten Capital Northern’s States. The introduction of the 6-3-3-4 system of Education made most of the schools of basic and remedial studies nationwide irrelevant in the new educational system. In recognition of this, the Niger State Governor set up a committee under the Chairmanship of Dr. Abdulkadir Daniyan to work out modalities covering Zungeru College of Advanced Studies into a full fledged Polytechnic.
The committee which was inaugurated on 26th September, 1988 submitted its report on 29th December, 1988. In 1990, the Niger State Government under the directives of Colonel Lawal Gwadabe approved the conversion of the former Zungeru College of Advanced Studies into a Polytechnic. In pursuance of excellence and the desire to bequeath a coherent education policy for the state, the state government merged the College of Administrative and Business Studies (CABS) Bida with the Polytechnic. At present therefore, the Polytechnic operates a collegiate system with College of Administrative and Business Studies (CABS) at Bida and College of Science and Technology (CST) at Zungeru referred to as the main campus.
The goal and objective of the polytechnic as enshrined in section 4 of the Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru Edict No. 9 of 1991 as amended are:
1. To provide instruction, training and research in Science, Technology, Commerce, Humanities and Management.
2. To offer special training courses in these and other related areas with the ultimate purpose of service to the community. And
3. To offer course in technology at Certificate and Diploma Levels.
Currently, the institution offers course at Certificate and National Diploma and Higher National Diploma (HND) Levels.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The Human Resources (Manpower) is considered the most critical to any organizational survival of a truism that adequate supply of material and financial resources that utilizes these available resources to bring about the desired goals.
However, most organizational plans meticulously for their investment in physical and capital resources and these plans are reviewed with utmost attention to detail while rarely do such organizations pay attention to human investment in which the capital and equipment will be in rain. Not many organizations consider the necessity for a well-defined and sustained training and development for staff in order to upgrade their performance or they are not able to cope financially with training and development programmes.
The very few organizations that give thought to this very important aspect of staffing functions do so with lack of seriousness, all round attention and continuity. The programmes are carried out not only once in a blue room but are also lopsided in terms of content and staff participation.
It is the opinion of the Niger State Polytechnic Zungeru observes that the poor performance of the organization – workers follow from their inability to keep abreast with the new technological current as a result of the absence of appropriate and sufficient staff training. It is against this background that the researcher considered the impact of performance training and development on organizational performance of this mission; however the researcher used Niger State Polytechnic Zungeru as a reference.
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study include:
1. To find out how productivity can be improved through training and development of employees.
2. To find out the factors influencing the quality of training and development programmes.
3. To find out whether the money spent on the training produces the result needed by the organization.
4. To recommend ways or appreciates types of training programmes that is necessary to improve an organizational productivity.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Institutions constituted the backbone of the economy of a great country like Nigeria. It is often said that education is the bed-rock of any nation in the world.
This research work intends to highlight and look into the factors militating giants manpower development and productivity in achieving its set objectives, by this, the study will look into the manpower base and quality of staff of high institution of learning. It is therefore pertinent for an institution to plan and train its workers for the scheme of globalization.
The outcome of this study will be of great use to any higher institution of learning to evaluate aspects of the recruitment, selection and training process, which bear strong relevance to institutional image, productivity efficiency and morals.
This work will go a long way in providing job satisfaction and services as motivation towards the realization of individual aspiration it will also be relevant to the Human Resource Development Department in the formulation of policies relating to training and development of personnel and for the government to ensure adequate training and know-how to improve the institutions.
This study will also be the basis or serve as reference material for other researchers in the field.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Some questions are raised to serve as guide to the researcher in the process of finding answers to the numerous problems. The research questions are:
1. Can employee productivity be improved through training and development in an organization?
2. What are the factors that influence the quality of training and development programmes?
3. Does the money spent on training produce the result needed by the organization?
4. What are the ways or appropriate types of training and development programmes necessary to improve organizational productivity?
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