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Title page                                                                                                    i

Approval page                                                                                           ii

Declaration                                                                                                           iii

Dedication                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                                v

Table of contents                                                                                        vi      

Abstract                                                                                                      viii


Background of the study                                                                                      1

Statement of the problem                                                                                     6

Purpose of the study                                                                                  7       

Significance of the study                                                                                      8

Research questions                                                                                               8

Scope of the study                                                                                               8


Concept of technical education                                                                   10

Importance of practical skill acquisition in technical education                           13     

Effect of adequacy of facilities and equipment in students performance    16

Problems of vocational and technical education in Nigeria                         17     

Problems of teaching and learning as its affect technical subjects                        19

Methodologies in teaching technical subject                                                         23

Possible techniques of solving the challenges affecting students

performance in technical schools                                                                29

Summary of related literature                                                                     35


Research Design                                                                                         37

Area of the Study                                                                                       37

Population                                                                                                  38

Sample and sampling procedure                                                                38

Instrument for Data Collection                                                                            39

Validation of the Instrument                                                                      39

Reliability of the Instrument                                                                       40

Method for Data Collection                                                                        40

Method of Data Analysis                                                                           40


Research questions                                                                                     42     

CHAPTER V:     SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND                                          CONCLUSIONS

Re – statement of the problem                                                                    46

Summary of procedures used                                                                     46

Major findings                                                                                            47

Discussion of the findings                                                                          48

Implication of the study                                                                                       51

Conclusion                                                                                                 52

Recommendations                                                                                                52     

Suggestion for further research                                                                            53

References                                                                                                  54

Appendix                                                                                                   57

List of tables

Table 1           Distribution of principals and teachers according to schools              38

Table 2:          Level of students’ performance in technical schools                            42

Table 3:          Availability and quality of human resources in technical

                        schools the environmental factors affecting student

                        performance in technical schools?                                                                       43

Table 4:          Environmental factors affecting student performance in technical                                         schools                                                                                                           44       

Table 5:          Strategies for improving students performance in technical schools  45


The study sought to find out the method of improving students performance in technical schools in Niger State Central Educational Zone Of Niger State. The specific purposes of the study were to identify the level of students performance in technical schools, determine the availability and quality of human resources in technical’s schools, determine the environmental factors affecting students performance in technical schools and identify strategies for improving students performance in technical schools. Four research questions were design and used to guide this study. The population of the study was 970 of which 153 was sampled. The study adopted descriptive survey research design and the area of study is Niger State Central Educational Zone Of Niger State. The test retest method was used to establish the reliability of the instrument and the Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficient was used to calculate the reliability coefficient. Mean statistics was employed to analyze the data. The summary of the findings for this study revealed that  there is inadequacy of instructional materials available for the teaching and learning of Technical subjects technology, Lack of modern text books, Inadequacy of teaching materials, Lack of maintenance culture, Insufficient time allocated for practical among others are the factors affecting the teaching and learning of Technical subjects in technical colleges of Kaduna State, Lecture method, Demonstration method, Lesson method, Practical method among others are the appropriate methods used in teaching and learning of Technical subjects technology in technical colleges and adequacy of tools for practical, Adequacy of maintenance culture, Adequacy of Technical subjects textbook, Adequacy of qualified teachers among others are strategies to improve the performance of students in Technical subjects in technical colleges. Based on the findings, recommendations were made which include: that technical education curriculum planners for technical schools should review the curriculum to suit the needs of the society based on model that will adopt to the changing needs of the Nigerian society, the federal ministry of education policy makers in the state should formulates and adopt a policy that only qualified and well trained technical teachers with the relevant teaching qualification should be employed to teach in our technical schools, libraries in Niger state should be built in the schools and adequate Technical school textbooks should be stored in the libraries among others.



Background of the Study

Technical Education is that aspect of education which leads to the acquisition of practical skills in metal construction, foundry, interior decoration, carpentry and joinery etc, as well as basic scientific knowledge. Technical and vocational education could be define as that aspect of education involving in addition to general education, the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills, attitude, understanding and knowledge relating to occupation in various section of economic and social life (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004). The national policy on education has placed a premium on vocational and technical education in view of its important role in technological and industrial development of Nigeria. The Federal Government therefore recognized technical education as an aspect of education which leads to the acquisition of practical and applied skills as well as basic scientific knowledge (FRN, 2004).

The nature of the demand for skills both in the quality and quantity help in promoting the need for vocational and technical education. Curriculum of technical education is therefore designed to offer students chance to test their abilities so that they can become self reliant in their choice of career.

Technical/vocational education can provide the individual students gainful employment in recognized career such as semi-skilled workers or technicians or sub-professionals(Oni, 2007). According to Audu et al (2013) any form of education that is geared towards teaching technical skills and attitudes suitable to such skill can be regarded as technical vocational education. Tilak (2002) emphasized that quality of technical vocational education is well planned and coordinated will guarantee student with skills, increasing production processes resulting from technological advancement. The nature of the demand for skills both in terms of quantity and quality inform the need in promoting vocational and technical education.

Technology (TVET) programs are available at the elementary, Junior Secondary School, Senior Secondary school level. At the elementary level it focus on technological awareness with classroom activities. While junior level the focus of technology education programs is on exploring the application of technology to solve problems and exploring the various technological careers. Senior secondary level, technology education programs are designed to give students experience related to scientific principles, engineering concepts and technological system (UNESCO 2012). The international objective of technical education are:

1.      To equip the countries with workforce with the new skills that the labour market demands

2.      Developing TVET to be a top priority in the quest to build greener societies and  tackle globe unemployment’s

3.      It helps in the social assimilation of various social groups (Patiniotis & Starroulakis 1997).               

The National Policy on Education (2004), stated the goals and objectives of vocational and technical education as follows:

i.                    to provide trained manpower in applied science, technology and commerce particular at sub-professional grades.

ii.                 to provide technical knowledge and vocational skill necessary for agriculture, industries, commercial and economic development.

iii.               to give training and impact the necessary skills leading to the production for craft-man, technicians and other skilled personnel who will be enterprising and self-reliant.

iv.               enable our young men and women to have intelligent understanding of the increasing complexity of technology.

v.                  to give an introduction to professional studies in engineering and other technologies.

Yole (1986) reported that occupational areas within which vocational and technical educational subjects fall largely are Agriculture, Home economics, Business and mechanics, capacity, countering, Arts etc.

Since the introduction of TVET in Nigeria educational system in 1973, enrollment in its programmes has remained low(Aina, 2006). This development according to Aina posed inherent danger to technological and national development. However, at the current annual turnout rate of the junior secondary schools in Nigeria is about 4million with an expected enrolment in technical colleges to be 800,000 (20%). From this, it is shown that there is low enrolment in technical in technical education programme.

Technical colleges in Nigeria are responsible for training people to become craftsmen and technicians. Training qualifies students for jobs both in the public and private sectors of the economy. Both sectors, according to Ndomi (2004), require well trained and competent technicians who can operate and maintain the available             technical equipment. Therefore, there is an ardent need for quality technical college for acquiring the desired knowledge and             training to produce graduates that can perform competently in their            chosen vocation without a need for pre-employment training. The major goal of vocational institutions is to prepare students for successful           employment in the labour market (Finch and Crunkicton, 2009). This          condition can be met through a curriculum that is relevant and comprehensive. With relevant training of students in skills acquisition in their trade areas is the key in order to meet the basic needs of electricity, roads and machinery among others. Technology courses such as welding and fabrication are an important in economic development, but a supportive school environment is a fundamental requirement for the successful implementation of the curriculum (Bybea & Loucks-Horsley, 2000) . This curriculum can only be implemented where facilities in the workshops are adequate and relevant. Availability of appropriate faculties enhance student learning by allowing them to be involved in demonstrations, and practice will continue to build their skills. According to Leighbody and Kidd (2008), there are certain things the trainer or teacher must do as well as the student which may involve careful planning of his activities for effective             learning.    

The technical colleges play vital roles in the training of technicians for industry. They impart vital technical skills in the youths, they help towards the goal of self employment and job creation and in the struggle towards technological advancement and acquisition.           

A nation cannot achieve greatness unless the effort is directed towards technology to develop the resources in the country. The acquisition of the requisite skills is a means of increasing productive power of any nations. The acquisition of such practical skills is important because when efficient and skillful hands are employed in any fields of human endeavors, high productivity is usually achieved. Okorie (2000).

The performance of students can boast with effective instruction process. The teacher work with the children in effective ways to provide maximum development towards intellectual, physical, emotional and social maturity. However, these effective ways are only possible if the teacher possesses the appropriate background. This means that the teacher must have necessary wisdom, experience, attitudes, beliefs and feeling towards the task before him. The poor performance of students is not limited to lack of materials, unsatisfactory work condition, reluctance of students to engage is educative faulty perception of last before the teacher. Who is seen as the role planner or master planner, organizer and implements of the whole educational program the teacher has to take up their task seriously and effective so that the technical students can be prepared physically emotionally and mentally besides be able to teach efficiently and effective(Aremu, 2005).   

It has been observed that teachers do not possess the  necessary skills for technical school. Such development is constituting a serious draw back in the development of technical colleges(Ehiametalor and Sofolahan, 2009). Again Nzelum (1993) remarked that buildings and well equipped workshop are of paramount importance in the institution of learning unfortunately the same cannot be seen of most of Welding and fabrication workshop in technical colleges of Kaduna state. From the foregoing, it can be said that some technical colleges in Nigeria are faced with problem of teaching and learning technical subjects because of lack of trained teachers, training facilities as well as poor teaching method. This problem that is faced by many states of which Niger state is one.

The situation of TVET in Nigeria seems to be the same, however, it may appear that, that of Niger state is more central. Several statistics from the national examination bodies like WAEC(Tech.) and NABTEB indicates a high rate (Aremu, 2014). This poses a serious threat to the technological and personal development of students. It is therefore, justifiable that this study is conducted in order to identify the strategies for improving students performances in technical colleges in Niger state. The state has11 numbers of technical schools. The schools are managed by the junior and technical education board. There are six thousand students in TVE in Niger state. Therefore when such a number of students are properly trained, they will contribute a lot to the development of the state.

In view of the foregoing, this study is set to dwell on method of improving students performance in technical subjects in Niger state central educational zone

Statement of the Problem

The analysis of 2015 NABTEB and WAEC in Niger state shows the level of student performance in technical schools is low. Despite all attempts by the Niger state government to improve the student’s performance in technical education, there is still a lot of problems facing the course.  

Ideally technical students’ performance supposed to be at the optimum because of the importance of technical education in our society. Students are expected to put in their best and be well dedicated to the course.  Generally technical education  has been downgraded to a second class form of education. Due to the lack of training and retraining, workshops facilities and materials as well as obsolete equipment in most of technical colleges in Niger state, the students found it difficult to perform better and actualized the objective of technical education as highlighted by the National Policy Education.

In view of the foregoing observations therefore it becomes necessary to try and fill this gap through be examining the method of improving students performance in technical subjects in Niger state central educational zone.

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