EFFECTS OF ETHANOLIC ROOT EXTRACT OF Jatropha tanjorensis ON LIPID PROFILE OF FEMALE ALBINO WISTAR RAT

EFFECTS OF ETHANOLIC ROOT EXTRACT OF Jatropha tanjorensis ON LIPID PROFILE OF FEMALE ALBINO WISTAR RAT

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ABSTRACT

This research work was carried out to determine the effects of ethanolic root extract of Jatropha tanjorensis on lipid profile of female albino wistar rats. Twenty (20) albino wistar rats weighing between 151-225 g were divided into 4 groups of 5 animals per group based on body weight. Group 1 was the normal control and was fed with distilled water and normal rat feed. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were given 100, 250 and 500mg of the extract per kg body weight respectively. Administration period was for 14 days through oral gavaging.  Data were obtained using student’s t-test and results were considered significant at P  0.05.The result showed that the extract caused an increase in Total cholesterol (1.408  0.014, 1.587  0.035, 1.722  0.022 for groups 2, 3 and 4 respectively) , Triacylglycerol  (0.718  0.025, 0.861  0.038, 0.998  0.019 for groups 2, 3 and 4 respectively),  High density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.679  0.014, 0.717  0.024, 0.896  0.015 for groups 2, 3 and 4 respectively) and Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.338  0.025, 0.419  0.014, 0.607  0.018 for groups 2, 3 and 4 respectively). However, there was a non-significant increase in the Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Therefore, the extract of Jatropha tanjorensis root is safe because it may lead to reduction in cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords: Jatropha tanjorensis, LDL-cholesterol, Total cholesterol, Triacylglycerol, VLDL-cholesterol  

TABLE OF   CONTENTS

Title                                                                                                       Page

Title Page    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -          -      i

Certification -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -          -          -      ii

Dedication  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -           -      iii

Acknowledgements        -        -        -        -        -        -        -            -      iv

Abstract      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -           -      v

Table of Contents -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -          -       vi

List of Figures      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -       x

List of Tables        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        xi

CHAPTER ONE:   INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Information      -        -        -        -        -        -        -           1

1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Study  -        -        -        -        -        -           2

1.3 Justification of study -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -           2

1.4 Scope of Work -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -                     2

1. 5 Research Hypothesis -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -           2

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW    

2.1 Description of Jatropha tanjorensis        -        -        -        -        -           4   

2.1.1 Common and Local Names        -        -        -        -        -        -           4

2.1.2 Taxonomy of Jatropha tanjorensis      -        -        -        -        -           4

2.2 Principal Phytochemical Constituent of Jatropha tanjorensis         -           5

2.2.1 Compounds Isolated from Jatropha tanjorensis       -        -        -           6

2.3 Ethnomedicinal Uses of Jatropha tanjorensis   -        -        -        -           9

2.4 Pharmacology of Jatropha tanjorensis    -        -        -        -        -          9

2.5 Medicinal Herbs Used in the Treatment of Hypertension      -        -          13

2.6 Anti-hypertensive Properties of Jatropha tanjorensis-         -        -        18

2.7 Effect of Jatropha tanjorensis on Some Biochemical Parameters   -        19

2.8 Effect of Anti-Hypertensive Drugs on Lipid Profile    -        -        -        20

2.9 Diagnostic Importance of Lipid Profile Test      -        -        -        -        21

2.9.1 Correlation between Cholesterol and Hypertension  -        -        -        22

2.9.2 Atherosclerosis and Hypertension                 -        -        -        -        22

CHAPTER THREE:  MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1 Materials         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        24

3.2 Reagents         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        25

3.3 Specimens      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        25

3.3.1 Collection of Plant samples       -        -        -        -        -        -        25

3.3.2 Preparation of Plant Extract       -        -        -        -        -        -        25

3.3.3 Experimental Animals     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        26

3.3.4 Experimental Design        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        26

3.3.5 Preparation of Sample Stock Solution  -        -        -        -        -        27

3.3.6 Administration       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        27

3.3.7 Animal Sacrifice    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        27

3.4 Lipid Profile Estimation Using Randoz Kit       -        -        -        -        28

3.4.1 Total Cholesterol Estimation     -        -        -        -        -        -        28

3.4.2 Triacyglycerol Estimation -        -        -        -        -        -        -        29

3.4.3  Estimation of HDL Cholesterol-         -        -        -        -        -        30

3.4.4  Estimation of LDL and VLDL of Calculation        -        -        -        31

3.5     Principle of Spectrophotometer -        -        -        -        -        -        32

3.6     Statistical Analysis -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        33

CHAPTER FOUR:  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Results  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        34

4.2 Interpretation of Results      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        35

4.3 Discussion      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        35

CHAPTER FIVE:  CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Conclusion      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -          38

5.2 Recommendations    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        38

References  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        39

Appendices -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -         47

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE                               TITLE                                                   PAGE    

Figure 2.1 Structure of Friedelin     -        -        -        -        -        -           6

Figure 2.2 Structure of β -amyrins    -        -        -        -        -        -           7

Figure 2.3    Structure of stigmasterol          -        -        -        -        -           8

Figure 3.1    Spectrophotometer                  -        -        -        -        -        32




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