INSTALLATION OF AUXILIARY WATER SUPPLY NETWORK TO THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL AND BIO-ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

INSTALLATION OF AUXILIARY WATER SUPPLY NETWORK TO THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL AND BIO-ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

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  • Major Attributes are Abstract, All Chapters, Figures, Appendix, References.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover page -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        i

Fly page      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        ii

Title page    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iii

Approval page     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iv

Declaration           -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        v

Dedication  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vi

Acknowledgement                   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vii

Table of contents  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        viii

List of table -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        ix

Abstract      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        x

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        1

1.1 Background of the study   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        1

1.2 Statement of the problem  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        3

1.3 Aim and objectives  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        4

1.4 Significance of the study   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        4

1.5 Scope of the study   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        5

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature review      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        6

2.1 Water    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        6

2.2 Sources of water      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        6

2.3 Ground water -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        7

2.4 Ground water and advantages of borehole     -        -        -        -        8

2.5 Exploiting ground water   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        9

2.6 Geological constraints       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        9

2.7 Borehole sitting       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        11

2.2.3 Types of geological formation -        -        -        -        -        -        12

2.3 Ground water extraction   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        13

2.4 Aquifer characteristics       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        14

2.5 Hydraulic characteristic     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        16

2.6 Borehole drilling      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        18

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Materials and methods      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        20

3.1 Location                   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        20

3.2 Survey and layout plan     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        20

3.2.1 Tools and materials                 -        -        -        -        -        -        -        21

3.2 Market survey and materials procurement     -        -        -        -        22

3.3 Mounting the overhead tank                 -        -        -        -        -        -        23

3.3.1 Tank fitness and connection    -        -        -        -        -        -        23

3.4 Procedure       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        23

3.5 Precautions    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        25

3.6 Install water head tank      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        26

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Discussions and cost analysis     -        -        -        -        -        -        26

4.1 Discussions    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        26

4.2 Cost analysis  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        26

4.2.1 Cost of materials  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        26

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Conclusion and recommendation         -        -        -        -        -        -        28

5.1 Conclusion     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        28

5.2 Recommendations   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        28

References  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        29


LIST OF TABLE

Table 4.1 Cost materials         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        26


LIST OF PLATE

1.       Installation of submersible pump     -        -        -        -        -        32

2.       The installed water head tank  -        -        -        -        -        -        33

3.       Connecting of pipe to the main tank -        -        -        -        -        34


ABSTRACT

Installation of underground pipes to network the water supply from the borehole to specific point that is soil lab and department main building was successful. Two over-head tanks were also installed at these points to stored water which can be used during dry season by way of irrigating as well as domestic purpose. The cost of the installation stood at N73,920. However, it was a laudable project because of the overall benefit and the objective of the work was actualized.


CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Water is essential to maintain and sustain human life, animals and plants (Patil and Patil, 2010), this is because it constitutes to a large extent, the major solvent in which many of the body’s protein and other substances are dissolved it enables many metabolic activities of the body to take place (Davis, 2005). Water is essential for growing food, for domestic uses and as a critical factor in industries, tourism and cultural purpose as it helps in sustaining the earth’s ecosystem (Mark et al. 2002). According to (Ajibade et al. 2011) 90% of the population in Nigerian depends largely on hand dug wells and boreholes. Rapid growth in urban populations, industrial activities, commercial and agricultural developments result in increase in the search for potable water. The preference of ground water as a source of drinking water in rural areas is because of its relatively better quality than river water.

A borehole is a hydraulic structure which when properly designed and constructed, permits the economic withdrawal of water from an aquifer. It is sometimes referred to as the accessing of groundwater for use in human day to day activities such as domestic use as small irrigation or agricultural lawn. A bore is also defined as a narrow well drilled with machine more costly to build than day wells but they are deeper and more reliable water from boreholes is safer since every borehole is covered and needs a pump there is no direct user contact with the water.

A borehole is narrow shaft bored in the ground, wither vertically or horizontally. A borehole may be constructed for many difference purpose, including the extraction of water, other liquids (Such as Petroleum) or Gases (Such as Natural Gases) as part of geotechnical investigation, environmental sit assessment, mineral explorations, temperature measurement, as a pilot hole for installing piers or underground utilities for underground storage of unwanted substances e.g. in carbon capture and storage. (Hellstron, 2008). Water is an essential resource for human development. It is used for various purpose which includes domestic: irrigation, industrial, power generation and recreation. The development of groundwater resources for potable use has increased substantially over the last two decades in developing countries as a result of rapid expansion of cities and subsequent population explosion. Ground water resource lend itself to flexible development and the capital cost of groundwater development when compared to surface water is modest.

The availability of quality water resources has always been the primary concern of societies in semi-arid and regions, even in areas of more abundant rainfall, the problem of obtaining adequate supply of quality water is generally becoming more acute due to over increasing population and industrialization. As a result of this, surface water cannot be dependable throughout the year, hence, the need to look for other alternatives to supplement surface water. This makes the world depend on the largest available source of quality fresh water which lies underground and this is referred to as Groundwater. It is the water held in the surface within the zone of saturation under hydrostatic pressure below water table (Ariyo and Banjo, 2008). Groundwater can be in sedimentary terrain where it is less difficult to exploit except for its chemical composition. It can also be in the basement complex terrain where it can be difficult to locate especially in areas underlain by crystalline infracted or unweather rocks. The research for groundwater today has become essential due to its relative low cost and it chance of obtaining quality water from the bedrock.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

 Persistent and erratic water supply from water board to meet the water demand of the department is grossly insufficient. Student practical’s is normally  affected in the laboratories. However, this necessitate the  need to construct the borehole as phase one project and this time around to installed and connected pipes from the borehole to laboratories and the main building.


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