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CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.1   Preliminary

        Nigeria is a fast developing nation in all aspect of sophistication which should not be limited to building structure but with how people think, reason, feel and understand among their follow human beings. The period of physical, social and psychological development of the child, which extends from the ages of about 13 to 19 years are ordinarily referred to as the teenage years or the period of adolescent. Physically, this period is characterized by rapid growth, development and maturity.

        Various endocrine glands are exerting strong influence during these years. A girl is considered to have reached puberty when she has her first menstrual period which usually occurs between the same ages of 12 to 14 years. Socially, children of this age group like adventures and sometimes make approaches to members of the opposite sex for friendship. As they interact with their mates, they admire gangs which they use to taste some items enjoyed by adults such as cigarettes, Marijuana, Alcoholic drinks and sometimes attempt sexual activities.

        According to Akimgba (2015), teenage pregnancy is described as pregnancy that occurs during the teenage period (that is between 13 – 19 years of age) regardless of whether the teenager is married or not. Paul (2013) is of the option that all early marriages, from 13 – 20 years in which pregnancy occurs are inclusive in the teenage pregnancy. Mecarthy (2014) opined that teenage pregnancy is a pregnancy which is unplanned and sporadic in the teen year(that is between 13 – 19 years).

        Teenage pregnancy is generally regarded by a greater percentage of Nigerians and people all over the world as a grave social and moral problem which often results in shame and distress to the teenager, discrimination against her and illegitimate child for her and the added responsibility and expense to the teenager’s family in particular and the society in general.

        In some communities, tribes and societies, where a girl must prove that she is fertile before she can be married by a man, teenage pregnancy might be seen as a moral course of event. A typical example is in Daura Local Government Area of Katsina state, where it is being practiced. In very many other societies in Nigeria, it is seen not only as a social problem but as a taboo as well as family disaster. In other words, teenage pregnancy as perceived by different group of people and communities is informed by the norms and values of the people in question.

        In obstetrics, pregnancy in the teenage period is classified under risk because the teenager is not fully matured to undergo the stress of labour as the pelvis is not yet very adequate. The pelvis forms a bong canal through which the foetus must pass during the process of birth. If the pelvis is not mature and adequate, it will be difficult for the baby to pass through during labour. With a pelvis that is not fully developed, the pregnant teenager as she approaches labour is faced with the danger of Vesico-Vaginal Fistula (V V F) and Recto-Vaginal Fistula (RVF), V V F occurs as a result of prolonged and difficult labour and forms an abnormal opening between the bladder and vagina while RVF is an abnormal opening between the rectum and vagina.

In either case, there is leakage of urine or faeces into vagina. These conditions are usually very distressing and uncomfortable to the young woman. Pregnancy at this stage is a burden rather than a joy both to the teenager and her family, probably because it was generally unplanned and sporadic. This is in contrast to a pregnancy that is planned and is received with joy. An adult who is married expect her baby with joy, buys things and waits in anticipation. She keeps herself in good physical and mental condition by going to antenatal clinic in order to have a live baby without complication.

1.2   Statement of the Problem

        Globally, young people aged between 15 and 24 years make up 1.2 billion of the world's population. Unwanted pregnancies and HIV infection continue to be daunting problems for young people, and studies indicate that HIV-infected youth face the greatest dilemmas (Beyeza-Kashesya et al, 2009). Great attentions have been given to prevention of teenage pregnancy in recent times leading to several campaigns to prevent teenage pregnancy (Noyes et al, 2008). This is because it has been viewed as a negative phenomenon modern times because of the attending negative effect on the health of these young teenagers. Despite the establishment of national teenage pregnancy programmes and strategies, teenage birth rates have increased globally.

        Teenage pregnancy might contribute to the cycle of poverty WHO. In addition to the lost potentials of girls who are married off, there are real cost associated with women's health and infant mortality. The teenage pregnant girl is exposed to torture, abuse, and the risk of the deadly HIV/AIDS infection. Some young girls are forced into marriage at a very early age. Others are simply too young to make an informed decision about their marriage partner or about the implications of the marriage itself. Early marriage deprives a girl of her adolescence. Teenagers younger than 15 are five times more likely to die during pregnancy or childbirth than women in their twenties and mortality rates for their infants are higher as well. Recent studies have shown that associations among young men and women are largely explained by socioeconomic confounding (Barber, 2001).

1.3   Purpose of the Study

1.     To examine the effect of teenage pregnancy on adolescent.

2.     To determine the factors associated with teenage pregnancy.

3.     To make useful recommendations based on the findings of this      study.

1.4   Research Questions

        The following research questions were stated to guide this study:

1.     What is the effect of teenage pregnancy on adolescent?

2.     What is the factors associated with teenage pregnancy?

1.5   Significance of the Study

        In this study, the researcher set out to determine a time series analysis of teenage pregnancy. Therefore, this study will be immense benefits to parents and guidance.

        This study will also help to serve as literature (reference source) to students, individuals or corporate bodies into what to carry out on further research on the similar topic.

1.6   Scope of the Study

        This study examines a time series analysis of teenage pregnancy of female child in Nigeria.

1.7   Limitation of the Study

        There is no study undertaken by a researcher that is perfect. The imperfection of any research is always due to some factors negatively affecting a researcher in the course of carrying out research.  Therefore, time constraint has shown no mercy to the research. The limited time has to be shared among many alternative uses, which includes reading, attending lectures and writing of this research, also distance and its attendant costs of travelling to obtain information which may enhance the writing of this study was a major limitation.


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