SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FEATURES AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SUSPECTED CASES OF TICK-BORNE RELAPSING FEVER IN NORTHERN BORNO STATE NIGERIA

SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FEATURES AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SUSPECTED CASES OF TICK-BORNE RELAPSING FEVER IN NORTHERN BORNO STATE NIGERIA

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SUMMARY

Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is a bacterial disease caused by Borrelia species

which is transmitted to humans by infected ticks. The disease occurs worldwide. In West

Africa, geographical distribution of Borrelia is classically limited to the Sahel and

Saharan regions; there are no documented cases of the disease in Nigeria. This study is a

response to a report of suspected TBRF in Borno state.    The aim is to determine

demographic features and risk factors associated with suspected cases of TBRF in

northern Borno State Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was carried out in four community

health centres and two referral hospitals using an interviewer administered questionnaires

to obtain demographic information. One hundred samples of tick were collected from

resting places in livestock markets, hemolymph smear were stained with Giemsa stain to

investigate for Borrelia. Questionnaires were analyzed using Epi info version 3.5.1,

Winepiscope soft ware and excel spread sheet. The Ages of respondents ranged from 3-

70 years, both males and females had symptoms of TBRF. Their primary occupation was

farming and trading. Keeping of animals was a significant (OR = 6.56, 95 % CI 1.73-

24.88) risk factor for tick infestation, while keeping of animals and sleeping outside at

night (OR = 4.88, 95 % CI 1.09-21.88 and OR= 3.91, 95 % CI 1.49-10.30) were

significant for tick bite. None of the 100 hemolymph smear revealed Borrelia spirochete

at X100. All the four communities were infested widely with ticks. Respondents of both

sexes and age groups studied were engaged in occupation that exposes them to tick bite

and TBRF. The state should conduct public health campaigns on preventing tick bite and

establish tick-borne borreliosis surveillance mechanism.

Key Words: Ornithodoros, Borrelia, risk factor, Borno State, Nigeria.

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0       Introduction

1.1       Background

Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is a bacterial disease caused by Borrelia species

transmitted to humans by infected ticks1. The disease occurs worldwide and has been

frequently reported in Afri


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