EVALUATION OF SERUM TOTAL ANTIOXIDANT STATUS IN TYPE II DIABETIC NIGERIANS

EVALUATION OF SERUM TOTAL ANTIOXIDANT STATUS IN TYPE II DIABETIC NIGERIANS

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ABSTRACT

Patients with type II diabetes mellitus are more prone to diabetic complications and oxygen

free radicals are known to contribute to the development of complications but there are

conflicting reports regarding antioxidant status in type II diabetic patients. The current

cross sectional study was designed to evaluate the serum total antioxidant status (TAS) in

type II diabetic patients and age matched control subjects in ABUTH Shika, Zaria. Also to

assess their correlation with clinical parameters and biochemical analytes. A total of 281

subjects were recruited for the study. These comprised of 181 type II diabetic patients and

100 controls. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) was measured using glucose oxidase method,

glycated haemoglobin (GHbA1c) using micro column method, TAS using Mosmann method while vitamins C and E using Moeslinger and Dahot methods respectively. The reference values of TAS, vitamins C and E are 15.7 – 63.1 mmol/L, 0.2 – 7.0 mg/ml and 3.7- 119.3 g/L respectively. The mean value of TAS (33.3 ± 0.5 mmol/L) was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in diabetic patients than in control subjects (39.4 ± 0.8 mmol/L). While on the other hand the mean values of FBG and GHbA1c in diabetic patients (7.0 ± 0.3 and 8.2 ± 0.2) were significantly higher (p< 0.05) than corresponding values in controls (4.1 ± 0.8 and 5.0 ±0.1) respectively. The mean values of TAS were however similar (p > 0.05) among diabetic patients with good and poor glucose control (33.3 ± 0.7 mmol/L versus 32.2 ± 0.7 mmol/L). Also the mean values of TAS were similar (p > 0.05) among diabetic patients with good and poor GHbA1c control ( 33.4 ± 0.6 mmol/L versus 33.1 ± 0.6 mmol/L). Similarly, the mean values of TAS in diabetic patients with complications and those without complications (32.8 ± 0.6 mmol/Lversus 34.4 ± 1.1 mmol/L) were not significantly different(p > 0.05). The mean value of vitamin E was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) in patients with good glucose control (44.6 ±3.0 g/L) and glycated haemoglobin control (44.5 ± 2.7 g/L) than in those with poor glucose control (41.8 ±2.7 g/L) and glycated haemoglobin control (41.7± 2.8 g/L). Furthermore, the mean level of vitamin E in patients without complications (49.5 ±7.0 g/L) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in those with complications (42.5±2.1 g/L). In diabetic patients, there were positive and significant correlations between TAS and age (r=0.173, p<0.05) as well as duration of diabetes mellitus (r=0.240, p<0.05). These results suggest that type II diabetic patients of the study area have low serum level of TAS.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism,

whereby the body is not able to properly utilize glucose (Papas, 2008).

Rahboni- Nobar et al (1999) stated that DM is a syndrome that is

characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia which is due to dynamic

interactions between varying defects of insulin secretion and resistance.

DM is the commonest endocrine disorder seen in clinical practice with

high morbidity and mortality rates (Bakari et al, 2003).

Diabetes mellitus is an epidemic disease in most countries that are

undergoing socio-economic transitions (Rahboni- Nobar et al, 1999).

Worldwide, an estimated


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