TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL AND THE CHALLENGES OF CORRUPT PRACTICES IN NIGERIA 1993 – 1998 (A CASE STUDY OF GENERAL SANI ABACHA)

TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL AND THE CHALLENGES OF CORRUPT PRACTICES IN NIGERIA 1993 – 1998 (A CASE STUDY OF GENERAL SANI ABACHA)

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CHAPTER ONE

TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL, ORIGIN AND FUNCTION

INTRODUCTION

1.0 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The history of corruption is as old as the world, because ancient civilizations have traces of widespread “illegality and corruption” (Dike, 2005). Various writers unite on the view that corruption, as a malaise, is not the exclusive preserve of any nation, race or section of the world but transcends national boundaries and frontiers and symbolizes phenomenal universal unwholesomeness politically, economically, religiously and culturally (Okunola, 1991; Oyebode, 1999). This does not, however, mean that the incidence and magnitude of corrupt activities are the same in every society. Some countries are obviously more corrupt; yet others have better plans in managing corrupt activities. From all indications Nigeria is not one of those that can effectively handle corruption, despite its unending corruption commissions and all the noise made by every administration on the efforts to transform the nation into a corruption free society. In Nigeria today, there are many unresolved problems, but the issue of the upsurge of corruption is alarming. Corruption is endemic in Nigeria. The damages it has done to the polity are astronomical. This menace has led to situations like slow movement of files in offices, police extortion of toll fees, port congestion, queues at passport offices and petrol stations, ghost workers syndrome, election irregularities, among others. Thus it is believed by many in the society that corruption is the bane of Nigeria. Consequently, the issue kept reoccurring in every academic and informal discussion in Nigeria.

HISTORY OF TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL

Transparency international, briefly (TI), is a non-governmental organsiation with seat, acting world-wide, in Berlin which engages itself in national and international people and economical corruption fight and raising the awareness of it. This includes, but not limited to political corruption, it publishes yearly its corruption perception index, a comparative listing of corruption worldwide. Transparency international were created in 1993 in Berlin friends from all over the world engaged by the former director of world Bank Peter Eigen and developed in shortest time to one most influential non-profit and partly-political independent movement of the most recent time, which can be compared concerning it political influence, for instance with Attac or Amnesty international. The head office of Transparency international and Transparency International Germany are in Berlin. The cause for the establishment of the organisation was the idea, the world corruption, which had accepted unbelievable extents and effect in the time of the cold war to fight by independent influencing control of an outstanding and particularly control instance standing for itself.

The worldwide reasonance on the establishment of transparency international in the year 1993 was unexpected. The historical framework offered a favourable surrounding field. The old iron curtain was with the German  unit  finally  pleases,  the  core  of  the  European  union joined themselves straight, the Gulf was in Iran and Iraq,  the  civil  war  in Yugoslavia humans for justice had sensitized and frame the U.S.A, “blew the democratic wind” the Clinton era. Much was ready in paying a new. The idea of transparency international fell on fruitful soil, however in response also defense and criticism provoked.

PHILOSOPHY OF THE MOVEMENT AND IT’S PROCEEDINGS

Transparency International already carry the basic concept in the name. In the variety of the different kind of corruption is according to the principles of the organisation as large common denominator, when solution, to prevent simple transparency in handling the things crucially, which it make possible, corruption leads into constructional courses. Because so paradoxically has from the point of view of this system also jedwede corruption in society and economics their sense. It is the symptoms for a malfunction in the system and if one liked to fight corruption, one must extract their fertile soil from her:

a)           By consistent disclosure and transparency of the things and linear path by current control by independent supervision

b)          By persuasive power and acceptance opposite concerning and authors.

c)           By careful selection and rotation of the personnel within the ranges concerned.

Multi-eye principle with financial effective control decision Complete documentation, particularly in the assignment and procurement area.

Most corruption accusation take place under poverty suffer on international level in state (South America, Africa). One of these states formed a proper vicious circle from poverty and corruption, which from own Kraft of the states hardly more is to be broken through and it makes susceptible thereby for outside political influencing control. When the fact appear particularly paradoxical that a certain “corruption impact is already presupposed” in investment funds (usually 10% of the sum total). Financed in development assistance project usually from tax funds to be the same country the corruption again.Hence, it most often in interest of foreign ruling powers or companies to promote the corruption in a country to induce if not straight, in order to enrich itself.

The beginning of transparency international is not confrontative but consenstative contrary to Amnesty international of Green peace, D. H. the government or to stand comparing head as supporters and aids on an equal footing in things corruption to the side and meet them with reason and understanding. A beginning that always does not become and pretty often in the cross fire of the criticism was gladly seen stands. Straight of others non-governmental organisation (NGO), like Attac or Green peace, those their popularity from the power of the mass and the road refer. Peter Eigen justifies this proceeding with his origin.

Someone like the director of the world Bank within the range East Africa nearly 25 years “more over the top” in the political, social and economic High Society operated, could demonstrate badly also over 60 years again with a protest poster before company building.

It had to continue, where it had stopped. Above in the executive floor, in addition, this explains the success of transparency international. Before scarcely 15 years in particularly citizen of Berlin Manson as bare vision based, applies for transparency international today as one of most successfully anti-corruption movement of the world, which operate in the meantime offices in over 90 states locally established national and chapters’information.

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT

In Nigeria, corruption kick-starts as a process of social decadence by enthroning the reign of roguery and unvarnished dishonesty, it allows ethical recklessness, and invites a normative chaos, that erodes every sane social value. It defaces and corrodes social mores, with lavatoriesrottenness. It sabotages the common will and enables the embezzlement of the nation’s posterity. Corruption has been broadly defined as a perversion or a change from good to bad. Specifically, corruption or corrupt behaviour involves the ‘violation of established rules for personal gains and profit. Corruption is ‘efforts to secure wealth or power through illegal means- private gain at public expense.

The Government has already embarked on recollecting the Abacha loot from foreign Governments and in this project we look at the efforts of transparency international on the corrupt practices in Nigeria.

1.3       OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main objective of the study is to access and evaluate how corruption has eaten deep into the economy of Nigeria under the Abacha regime. While other specific objectives are:

1.    To understand the negative impact on the economy growth and development of Nigeria. Investigate the impact of corruption and corrupt practices in Nigeria under the SaniAbacha Regime.

2.    To determine the role played by transparency international in combating corruption in Nigeria during the SaniAbacha Regime.

3.    To evaluate the response of the previous Government on the Abacha loot.

4.    To provide plausible recommendations and way forward on the problem of corruption in Nigeria.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Question 1

Has transparency international been able to tackle the challenges of corrupt practices in Nigeria?

Question 2

How has previous Governments been responding to transparency international on Abacha’s loot and its recovery process.

1.5   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study is important as it seeks to evaluate the transparency international and the various challenges of corruption and corrupt practices in Nigerian. The study also revealed the extent to which corruption will impact on the economy generally. The study is an added contribution to the existing knowledge on revenue and service delivery in Local Government and ways on improving the two. The research will also help other researchers who may wish to carry out research of similar nature.

1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This Project focused on the study of transparency international and challenges of corrupt practices in Nigeria.

As with any other research, there were restrictions or constraints that the researcher encountered. The limitations of this study include:

i. Financial constraint: It is an established fact that every research work consumes a lot of money. Therefore, the financial requirement for gathering data, typing of the project subsequently and other related expenditure served as a major constraint to this research work.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

CORRUPTION: In general, corruption is a form of dishonesty or criminal activity undertaken by a person or organization entrusted with a position of authority, often to acquire illicit benefit.

CORRUPT PRACTICES: There are many kinds of gratification, including money, sexual favours, properties, promises, services and etc.Favours also come in different forms such as seeking confidential information, leniency, special privileges, contracts and etc.

1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concerned with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.


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