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The research study was meant to investigate the leadership roles and motivation in Nigeria’s Universities especially University of Benin and carefully trace the reaction of the subject heading to the productivity of the employees in these institutions. And to this effect, a research statement of problems poses as follows.
The problem of leadership roles and motivation in Nigeria Universities has been identified as the major reason why these institutions have not measured to the exact expectation of the good people of Nigeria in the area of goal achievement. Effectiveness and efficiency in performance of the Nigeria’s Universities would highly depend among other things on the leadership roles and motivation of workers in the institutions. Assuming the leaders of these institutions exhibit the most excellent leadership roles coupled with the motivation of the human resources to higher productivity in these institutions, the story would have been positively different.
The alarming problem of inefficiency in Nigeria’s Universities calls for a research study of this nature to reduce if not totally eliminating the problem.
The methodology adopted throughout the research programme was the survey method construction and administration of questionnaires to respondents was embarked upon. The findings were tabulated and sometimes in figures. The revelation was that much is needed to achieve success in employee satisfaction and productivity in Nigeria’s Universities especially the University of Benin, Benin City.
Conclusively, one would recommend that the leaders in these Universities should perform their roles effectively to the expectation of all consumers of University services and in addition, should step up the amount of motivation given to the human factors of the institutions to induce these workers to higher productivity.
The researcher has decided to present the research study in five chapters to ensure a successful research study.
1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In the words of Prince Joh Okojie in his book (Organizational Behaviour and Management) 2001, page 168, he said and I quote “…in the world of business, leadership is a key ingredient in corporate effectiveness”. From the above statement, leadership can therefore be translated to mean a very important but useful element or variable in any organization.
In the same vein, Keith Davis, (1981), in his book (Human Behaviour at Work) defined leadership as “the ability to persuade others to seek defined objectives enthusiastically. It is the human factor which binds a group together and motivates it towards goals”.
According to Management Study Guide (2012), leadership is “a process by which an executive can direct, guide and influence the behavior and work of others towards accomplishment of specific goals in a given situation”. Leadership is the ability of a manager to induce the subordinates to work with confidence and zeal.
The Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (6th edition) best defined leadership “as the potential to influence behavior of others”. It also defined leadership “as the capacity to influence a group towards the realization of the goal”. Leaders are required to develop future visions, and to motivate the organizational members to want to achieve the visions.
In general, it is clear that leadership and leadership roles are important in all human organizations considering what different books have said about the definition of leadership.
Good leadership roles have led many nations of the world out of the bondage of colonial rule to independence. Looking at the issue from another angle, poor leadership role have plunged many nations of the world to ruins. A good example is the leadership role played by German’s Hitler during the First and Second World Wars of between 1918 and 1945.
The tenure of Professor Adamu Baiki as the Vice Chancellor of the University of Benin could be admitted by all workers of University of Benin to be good. The Vice Chancellors that came after him could not perform to the expectations of the generality of the University of Benin workers.
Today, be it public or private sector of the economy, good leadership role is a necessity for a radical but positive change. Institution of higher learning like the University of Benin is dare need for caliber of persons with excellent leadership quality to lead the institution to glory in areas of goal achievement.
In addition to other qualities of leadership that any leader should have is the ability to motivate the followers or subordinates to achieve higher productivity. This is good for the universities in particular and for the whole nation in general. A leader who cannot motivate the workers has no place I modern development. The above facts agree with Professor R.O.F> Ola”s definition of motivation in his script titled (motivating others to greater productivity) delivered at a Senior Supervisory Development Workshop (1993). His definition goes as follows: motivation was defined as “the will to work and contribute action to a given process without being forced to do so”. Professor Ola also defined productivity as “the ratio of input to output”.
From the above submission, one can truly conclude that there has been the problem of poor leadership over the years in the University of Benin. The general concern here is that the workers accuse the University of Benin Management or leadership as the sole cause of their low productivity while the management on its part accuses the workers for the decline in productivity in the institution.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF UNIVERSITY OF BENIN
The University of Benin was established in the early 1970s through the military administrative leadership of the then Brigadier Samuel Osaigbovo Ogbemudia as the governor of the then mid-western region of Nigeria.
As applicable to other Universities in Nigeria, the Vice Chancellor is the executive head of the University of Benin, while the Registrar is the administrative head of the institution. The University of Benin is a line and staff organization. All administrative staff and indeed all staff from the Registrar level down are responsible to the Registrar administratively while in the final analysis, all staff including the Registrar are answerable to the Vice Chancellor.
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