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1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The physical characteristics of a place make up its natural environment and are derived from geological, hydrological, atmospheric, and biological processes. They include land forms, bodies of water, climate, soils, natural vegetation, and animal life.
The physical character of core area in Ado-Ekiti in these research majorly focus on the slums dwellers and also housing conditions, slums dwellers, Socio-Economic Life Styles, educational, urban expansion, urban land use etc.
Looking at physical character, Environment is the sum of all external condition and influences to which an living being is subjected. It involues, primarily, the man and his cultural and socio-economic lifestyles, the condition of housing, other environmental sub-systems, and the concern of various institutional managements, Housing, as a substantive unit of the environment is described as residential environment. This includes the physical structure used for shelter, all necessary services, facilities, equipments and devices needed or desired for the physical and mental health and social well-being in the family and individual (Aribigbola, 2001; Adedeji, 2008; Owoeye and Sogbon, 2012a). The United Nations Ad-Hoc Group of Experts on Housing and Urban Development define it as physical environment in which a family must develop, being the basic unit in the society. It was further asserted that housing is not mere shelter or household facilities alone but comprises a number of facilities, services and utilities which link individuals and his family to the community in which it evolves. It is universally acknowledge, therefore, as one of the most basic needs with a profound impact on the lifestyle, health, happiness and the productivity of the individual (UN Habitat, 2003; Owoeye and Sogbon, 2012b).
Since the colonial days, Ado-Ekiti had been central to the administration of Ekiti land, a position that attracted the infrastructure necessary for the economic and socio-cultural and political development. The increase in size has been phenomenal, thus, transforming the land use from the rural agro-economical to a variant of land use system in the typical urban setting. Though the rapid expansion of Ado-Ekiti could be traced to the 1940’s (Ojo, 1966) when it became the State Capital of Ekiti State, Nigeria. This remarkable change has increased the status of Ado-Ekiti as a nerve centre of Ekiti State, thus making Ado-Ekiti a primate city which induces mass drift, not only from its nearby hinterlands, but also from the large cities like Abuja, Lagos, Ibadan, Ile-Ife and many others. The influx of people into Ado-Ekiti was exacerbated by the changes that took place in the socio-economic and political life of the city not only because of infrastructure such as electricity and potable water, but mainly with the presence of employment opportunities that led to the influx of more and more people of whom a greater majority were erstwhile rural dwellers. This insurgence of people and firms into the city has warranted the expansion of the city both demographically and spatially and has expansion of the city. With the absence of effective planning mechanism, the city tends to mimic the painful experience of the developed countries of the world during the nineteenth century when development proceeded without Physical Planning. In the light of these, Ado-Ekiti has witness unprecedented physical haphazard expansion. Needless to say, the upsurge has introduced its attendant misnomers specifically reflected in disoriented homestead, ram-shackle dwellings and undirected development lines that result in slums and shanty settlements, all leading to environmental management difficulties especially in Waste Management and control of congestion-related diseases. Besides there is unauthorized and uncoordinated land use both at individual and cityscape levels resulting in creation of Urban Jungle. For example, several residential buildings are converted into Commercial, Medical, Educational and other uses without regards to the parameters for Agriculture, Market seven Roads- are converted to residential uses.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The process of urbanization which means specific changes in the distribution and structure of population as well as in a size and character of a settlement, their network or system, has many sided relationship with slums formation. The rapid rate of urbanization witnessed in the last century has produced more slums in the major cities of the world, particularly in developing countries where thousands of rural people move into the major cities at large proportion. Presence have slum is believed to have been a major cause of organized crime in the society. The researcher will investigate the impact of slum on the value of residential properties in Nigeria.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The following are the objectives of this study:
1. To examine the assessment of House condition and socio economic lifestyles of Ado-Ekiti.
2. To identify the causes of slum formation in Ado-Ekiti.
3. To examine the relationship between physical character and House condition and socio economic lifestyles of Ado-Ekiti
4. 1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the House condition and socio economic lifestyles of slum dwellers in Ado-Ekiti?
2. What are the causes of slum formation in Ado-Ekiti?
3. What is the relationship between slum formation and House condition and socio economic lifestyles of slum dwellers in Ado-Ekiti?
HO: Formation of slum does not have House condition and socio economic lifestyles of Ado-Ekiti.
HA: Formation of slum does have House condition and socio economic lifestyles of Ado-Ekiti
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The following are the significance of this study:
1. This study will educate stakeholders in housing sector, urban and regional planning and estate management of the causes and characteristics of slum and its effect on the rent and price which are the determinant of the value of those residential properties on physical character of core area in Ado-Ekiti. This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied, it will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.
1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study on the assessment of the physical character of core area in Ado-Ekiti will cover the formation of Ado-Ekiti and its effect on house rent, land rent, land purchase, security etc.
LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Urbanization: refers to specific changes in the structure and distribution of urban population as well as in size and character of a settlement
Slum: a squalid and overcrowded urban street or district inhabited by very poor people
Akinyode, B. F. “An appraisal of community improvement programmes (CIP) in developing countries: A case study of World Bank Assisted Urban Renewal Project in Ibadan”, M. Sc. Thesis, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, 1998
Olotuah, A. O., Housing Quality in suburban areas: An empirical study of Oba-Ile, Nigeria, DimensiTeknikArsitektur, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 133 -137, 2006.
Omole, F. K., “An Assessment of Housing Condition and Socio-Economic Life Styles of Slum Dwellers in Akure, Nigeria”, Contemporary Management Research.Vol 6. No 4. Pp 273-290, 2010.
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