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1.1 Background to the Study
Cancer is the growth disorder of cells in the body. Clinically, it can be defined as a large number (up to a hundred) of complex diseases that behave differently depending on the cell types from which they originate (William, Klug et.al, 2009, p.513). It is a genetic disease which is caused by mutation that has dominated other cells. In 2000, there were 1,220,100 reported cases of new cancers and 552,200 cancer deaths, indicating that roughly half of the people who develop cancer die from it (William, Klug, et.al, 2009, p.513). Statistics emanating from different health organisations and agencies around the world indicate that there are over 16 million new cases of cancer globally. This figure, according to World Health Organization (WHO) 2011report, is likely to double in 2020 (Chustecka, 2011, p.1).
The World Health Organization (WHO) has documented that early diagnosis of cancer greatly affects treatment success. The process to early diagnosis is proposed to include education (knowledge) on the disease, encouragement for participation (practice) in early detection procedures and practices that prevent the risk of developing cancer (Who, 2014). Çapik (2014) reported that in Turkey and many countries, the early diagnostic tests for cancer are not considered among routine screening programs, but are performed on an individual basis with recommendations from physicians.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), in 2008 gave an estimate of over 681,000 and 512,400 new cases of cancer. These figures have increased to 1.4 million cases and 714 thousand deaths in 2010 (IARC Report 2010, p.3). The three most deadly human cancers are cancer of the lung, cancer of the colon and breast cancer. However, lung cancer is largely preventable, most of these cases result from smoking cigarettes (American Cancer Society, 2000, p. 13).
The most deadly disease in men is prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is a type of cancer which only affects men. It is the second leading cause of death in men. (World Cancer Report 2011, p.4). It occurs when tumor begins to grow in the prostate gland of male reproductive system. The word "prostate" means "one standing in front". The prostate is so called because of its position, which is directly at the base of the bladder. It is estimated that 241,740 new cases of prostate cancer were diagnosed in 2012 in America and out of this number, 28,170 patients will die from this disease (America Cancer Society, 2012, p. 23).
Studies over the years indicate that heredity is definitely a cause of prostate cancer. For instance, a man has the tendency of developing prostate cancer if his biological father or brother has it. Age is also one of the causes. The older a man is, the higher is his risk of having it. However, it is rare among men below the age of 45, but very common among men that are 50 and above. Studies have also shown that some diets such as vegetables can reduce a person’s chance of developing prostate cancer. Other studies have indicated that lack of some essential vitamins in the body such as vitamin D, a meal rich with red meat may also raise a person's chances of developing prostate cancer. Research studies have equally shown that there might be a link between the daily use of anti-inflammatory medicines and prostate cancer. Men who have had gonorrhea have a higher chance of developing prostate cancer. Aside these, there are other causes of prostate cancer in men (Peter & George, 2002, p. 368).
1.2 Trend in Nursing Practice
Cancer cells are immortal, until they are uprooted by surgery or the body in which the cell resides dies before one can be said to be free from this disease. Due to the nature of this disease in man, several agencies and organizations such as United Bank for Africa have organized seminars and awareness campaigns on prostate cancer. On Saturday, June 18th 2011, UBA Foundation flagged off an awareness campaign against prostate cancer in Nigeria and Africa, all in a bid to fight cancer. Yet the current statistical data of mortality resulting from prostate cancer is in the increase. Prostate cancer is the most pernicious disease in man, the second highest cause of death in man (World Cancer Reports 2011, p.4)
Inspite of the Campaigns on cancer generally, death continues to be on the increase. In developing nations like Nigeria, death rate as a result of prostate cancer is very high and mostly among men that are 50 years and above. However, this high death rate can be linked to lack of public awareness, knowledge, late detection and diagnosis of the disease and the attitude of men about the disease. All these lead to the premise that prostate cancer is yet to be well understood by men. However, some people are of the view that any awareness campaign aimed at combating this deadly disease must have all it takes to increase knowledge, create positive attitude and enhance practice of screening methods among the audience. Except there is a significant change in the attitude of those exposed to prostate cancer campaigns, the entire exercise will amount to vanity.
Prostate cancer is a disease of increasing significance worldwide. In many industrialized nations such as the United States, it is one of the most common cancers and among the leading causes of cancer deaths.1 In developing countries it may be less common, however its incidence and mortality has been on the rise.2 It is tempting to judge the public health significance of a disease by its incidence or mortality, but when it comes to prostate cancer this dogma is confounded by the very high prevalence of occult disease.3Incidence is therefore influenced by the intensity of diagnostic efforts, and the mortality figures reported for any particular geographic area depend on the reliability of cancer registries. The United States has one of the most active prostate cancer early detection programs in the world, and also the highest incidence. Once prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests became available for prostate cancer screening, the US has experienced a huge increase in prostate cancer incidence.4 Therefore, it is very important to understand the actual prevalence of prostate cancer in given areas of the world if we wish to compare incidence and mortality figures for various age and racial groups, or between different geographical regions.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.To determine the level of knowledge, attitude and acceptance (KAA) of prostate cancer screening exercise among Men with reference to global perspective.
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