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This study examined Effect of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on Pupils’ Academic Achievement in Mathematics in Eket Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The design of the study was experimental design. The sample consisted of one hundred and twenty two (122) primary schools Pupils in Eket Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Three research questions and three research hypotheses guided the study. Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT) was used as the instrument for gathering data for testing the hypotheses using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient at 0.05 level of significance. The result showed that there was a significant relationship between Information and Communication Technology and Pupils’ Academic Achievement in Mathematics. There was also a significant relationship between Information and Communication Technology and Pupils’ Academic Achievement in Mathematics by gender. It was revealed that Information and Communication Technology enhances males Pupils’ achievement in Mathematics than their female counterparts. There was a significant relationship between Information and Communication Technology utilization and overall Pupils’ academic achievement in Mathematics. Based on the results of the findings the use of Information and Communication Technology was recommended for enhancement of the teaching and learning of Mathematics at the primary level of education and that equal opportunities should be given to both male and female Pupils who would be diligent and willing to learn the subject.
1.1 Background of the study
Mathematics is the bedrock of many professional courses. Mathematics is the science of space and number which lead to formation of symbols. The symbols also lead to the establishment of formulae which can be used in the application of problems solving. Mathematics is accepted in the present world of science and technology as the “queen of science and the language of nature” and no nation can hope to achieve any measure of scientific and technological advancement without foundation in mathematics (Odili, 2010). Mathematics occupies a central place in school curriculum and requires effective teaching and learning. In this regard, the National Policy of Education (NPE, 2014) stipulates mathematics as a core subject for primary school, junior and senior secondary curricula in Nigeria.
Success in science and technology by technologically advanced countries as observed by Agigi (2005) is due to sound mathematics education. Eshiet (2006) observed that mathematics presented the greatest difficulties to students among the science subjects in the West Africa School Certificate Examinations in the previous decade. In the same vein, Alio (2007) and Udousoro (2009a, 2010b) reported of students’ poor performance in problem solving in secondary school mathematics examinations. They attributed the situation to teachers’ negligence of exploring the problem solving strategies as alternative strategy to replace the traditional method of teaching mathematics which has failed to produce any positive results in terms of students’ achievement. The use of mathematical models strategy is investigated to check this problem. Mathematical models in usage include such devices like shapes, patterns, forms and constructions and produced by teachers to present mathematical ideas in order to make visualization and understanding clear and real.
The West African Examination Council (WAEC) chief examiner’s reports between 2003 and 2008 have consistently drawn attention to poor performance of students in certain mathematics topics in West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSE). Such areas of weaknesses include: mensuration, geometry and statistics (WAEC 2003 & 2008). The teaching and learning of mensuration at secondary level of education still remain a serious problem due to the abstract nature of the concepts. Alio and Harbor Peters (2002) stated that teachers’ non-utilization of the necessary technique in teaching mathematical problem solving is a contributing factor to students’ poor achievement in mathematics.
Among other factors that can influence Pupils’ achievement are: Pupils’ characteristics and teacher variables. They constitute significantly because the teacher’s method of teaching can either make or mar the educational process. For instance, a student who has always been adjudged as brilliant could be adversely affectd by a teacher who is either incompetent in teaching or who does not have the basic skills required for effective teaching.
The greatest achievement in the twentieth century was the development of Information Communication Technology (ICT) for use in all facets of human endeavours. Major challenges in technology have always caused changes in the society. In the middle of the 18th century, a series of interventions made it possible for people to “mass produce” items. The then agricultural world became industrial world. The methods of product transportation and communication were improved significantly and the elite group acquired many fortunes rapidly by using a commodity and the organized banking system as the means of controlling the new industrialized society (Kaiya and Ndomi, 2009).
According to Osusanya and Oloyode (2003), with the rapid growth of industrialization, came the need for handling the ever increasing volume of information concerning parts and people. This formed the basis for the development of the computer. At present, powerful computers are used to store large volumes of information. Information and communication technology is the major employer of computers so much that the two are thought to be synonymous. Goyal (2008) pointed out that its growth and development is one of the most significant achievement of the present century.
As Akubilo (2005) puts it, the revolution implied by information communication technology is placing different demands science and mathematics in particular these demands cannot be met through simple revision of the current curriculum or existing textbooks. This is because ICT revolution has transformed available technologies, the means and methods of teaching and learning the sciences, especially mathematics. The paradigm now is that not only should students be made to understand basic mathematical concepts, they must also understand how mathematics education and the (ICT) are related. With the internet, it is possible to access learning materials anywhere in the world. The opportunities available to science staff and the students on the internet are numerous and those making use of it are better.
It is unfortunate to note that most of the Pupils in Nursery and primary schools fear the study of mathematics. They believe that mathematics is difficult and somehow only reserved for the intellectually gifted earners, despite the fact that the subject is very important in one’s daily life. It is believed that there are some problems militating against the effective teaching and learning of mathematics in Primary schools today, one of the problems is poor teaching method. It is in the light of this that the researchers decided to take up this study on Effect of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on Pupils’ Achievement in Mathematics: A case study of Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Pupils’ achievement in primary schools mathematics in Nigeria is on the decline (Ali, 2016). Despite the increasing efforts of different governments and curriculum developers in Nigeria to produce materials for its study and the prominence given to mathematics as a core subject, it is disheartening to note that many Pupils achieve differently at school today. This may be viewed to have been brought about by teachers’ poor teaching methods or pupils’ negative attitude towards the study of mathematics (OLarenwaju, 2007). Alio (2007) reported Pupils’ poor achievement in problem solving in primary school mathematics examinations. Akpan (2000) also noted high rate of failure in secondary school mathematics. They attributed the situation to teacher negligence of exploring the problem solving strategies to replace the traditional method of teaching mathematics, which has not been the best for achieving positive results in terms of pupils’ achievement.
Mathematics is assumed to be a difficult subject and as such it needs a practical approach to be used so as to overcome the problem. It is a well known fact that instructional materials and methods in particular inspire and help learners to concretize concepts in mathematics. The present study will determine the extent to which the use of Information and Communication Technology in the teaching and learning process will enhance Pupils’ achievement in mathematics.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Information and Communication Technology and Pupils’ Achievement in Mathematics: A case study in Eket Local Government Area in Akwa Ibom State. Specifically, the objectives of the study were to:
1. examine whether there is a relationship between the achievement of Pupils taught mathematics using information and communication technology and those taught without.
2. examine whether there is a relationship between the achievement of Pupils taught mathematics using information and communication technology by gender.
3. determine whether there is relationship between ICT utilization and Pupils’ overall academic achievement in mathematics.
1.4 Significance of the Study
By undertaking this study, the findings of this study would contribute to the body of existing knowledge. It would sensitize teachers in the use of information and Communication Technology to concretize abstraction in mathematics and enhance effectiveness in teaching and learning of mathematics resulting from Pupils’ involvement. The findings of the study would assist Pupils greatly in their academic achievement as they learn how to utilize Information and Communication Technology to achieve the learning of mathematics and solve real life problems.
The results would also help mathematics Laboratory designers to enrich their curriculum with concrete materials with the aim of improving mathematics teaching and learning, and may be beneficial to curriculum developers and all stakeholders of education as the effective utilization of ICT would help promote quality of education in Nigeria. Finally, the utilization of ICT would add to current research on Pupils learning of mathematics by conceptualization thereby forming the basis for further investigation.
1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study was limited by the interaction between selection and maturation which might have occurred between the pre-test and the post-test. The study was also limited by interaction between selection and history. This might have occurred because events other than treatment (such as health history among others) might have affected one group and the other. Irrespective of the Pupils’ state of health, the researcher used encouragement as a motivating factor on them to take the test.
1.6 Delimitation of the Study
This study is delimited to:
1. Primary five Pupils in two primary schools in Eket Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
2. The use of Information and Communication Technology in teaching and learning of mathematics.
3. Primary five Pupils had been selected they have been exposed to good mathematics teachers and good laboratory with sufficient computers.
4. It was delimited to dependent variable “Pupils’ Achievement in mathematics” and independent variable which was “Information and Communication Technology (ICT)”.
5. It was further delimited to plane shapes as stated in National Policy in Education of Nigeria.
1.7 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised in this study
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