THE ROLE OF TRADITIONAL MEDIA (ELECTRONIC AND PRINT) IN MOBILIZING SUPPORT DURING MILITARY OPERATION

THE ROLE OF TRADITIONAL MEDIA (ELECTRONIC AND PRINT) IN MOBILIZING SUPPORT DURING MILITARY OPERATION

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1              Background of the study

Traditional media comes in unalike forms and is known by not the same names indifferent regions. Traditional communication tools are developed based on the beliefs, customs and rituals practiced by the people. These are very old and deeply rooted. Traditional media is therefore a form of communication using voice folk art forms, verbal, musical and visual, transmitted to a company or a generation of corporate group to another. They are indigenous modes and served the company as tools / means of communication for ages (Schulz, 2012).

The media, with specific reference to the collective entity of newspapers, radio, television and the International Network (Internet) play a very important role in national development. However, this is indeed a critical period in our national life when a war raging on the desperate terrorists kept the military operations in the Northeast and other regions of the north, persistent media attention. And as expected, the subject now dominates the content Country online media. As it is, online media, which rely on the rapid development and evolution of new technologies unlike its counterpart of well-established traditional media is still evolving, and ethics and regulations that will guide his conduct and practice are yet to be standardized (Saqib, 2012).

Moreover, the National Development involves change or advancement in a country to improve the political, economic and social life of the people. The real influence of the media in national development will depend on the media themselves, the companies in which they operate, and the audience they reach. None of these factors are the same everywhere, at any time or under any conditions. The media in dictatorships, for example, are not likely to have the same influence as those in democratic societies. Even among similar types of government, other factors, such as technology, audience and message, may affect the extent of the impact of media in society (Tola, 2013).Whatever the circumstances or the nature of the society in which the media operate, some factors are the basis of how they affect national development. Each medium has a message; it has a target audience; it aims to influence change; it influences the attitudes, perceptions and decision making; and generally influences behavior. In addition, John (2015) a military strategist and essayist said: "The machines do not fight wars. People do, and they use their minds and destruction and distortion of the will of the enemy to win and the perception of reality through an ambiguous posture, and separation of the communications and information infrastructure should be the driving force in the mental war "in my opinion .This underscores the strategic role of the army and the media in the war against terrorism in Nigeria.

Nevertheless, communication is a sense of creative process shared by the sending and receiving of information leading to understanding and providing knowledge to people. It enables people to understand and appreciate their environment, and facilitating relationships between and among individuals and societies. Communication may be oral or written; formal or informal; verbal or nonverbal; traditional or modern. Whatever form it takes, the communication is to transmit information from one party to another. The source, the message, the medium, the receiver and the effects are the main ingredients of communication. Communication between mass media and its audience is mass communication. There are multiple ways in which the communication is made, and these are known collectively as the "media" (Fagorusi, 2013).The word “media” comes from the plural of the Latin word medium, and it is used as a collective noun to refer to television, radio, newspapers, magazines, films, the International Network (Internet), etc. The media can be examined either in terms of broadcast media, or print media. Further, a medium is described as hot, meaning a high definition channel of communication, such as print or radio, which focuses on a single sensory receptor. It is cool, meaning a low definition channel of communication, such as television, which stimulates several different senses and requires high sensory involvement. In certain instances, the word “press” is used to refer to the print media, while in other instances the word “journalism” is used to describe the business or practice of writing and producing news (Fielder, 2008).

However, when the military took power and banned all political parties in 1966, at least 26 tribal and cultural associations were also banned (Anayaele, 2014). Yet ethno political organizations remained central in Nigerian politics in general and in the recent process of ending an authoritarian regime in particular, part of the organization that emerged in this process include the EgbeAfenifere, which literally means people who wish to protect their interest in association with others and IlosiwajuEgba Yoruba (Yoruba Progressive Association) claiming to represent the interests Yoruba, the 'Mkpoko Igbo (Igbo union "s) for the Igbo, the movement for the survival of the Ogoni people (Massop) for minority Ogoni and the Forum northern elders representing or perceived to represent the interests Hausa Fulani. Some of them merged into larger inter-ethnic and regional groupings such as the southern Group Mandala with claims to represent all ethnic interests in the south (Agedah, 2009). Many realize that the media can be a weapon of war. Military has need to control information, it is of utmost importance for safe operation thatthe military culture must do more to engage in the process of cooperation with the media thus ensuring that only the right information through the public .

Duke of Wellington has a very serious objection on the media and the military relationship ... English papers ... clearly articulated not only the regiments occupying a position, but the number of men fit for service, each regiment was composed; and intelligence must have reached the enemy ... at a time when it was most important that he should not receive the (Sheppard 2010).

However, the media main objective is to sell their product to the largest audience while military can focus on the struggle for political, strategic or military objectives. As part of, military government has a difficult task to obtain public support and in most cases, war is not a popular option in public opinion. Taylor is determined to establish differences between the media and the military, "the army requires team play ... ... is hierarchical values ​​the loyalty and trust in the higher ... are valuing the average guy anonymity, whereas journalists are fighting each other ... have no place ... value objectivity and skepticism and fight for recognition "(Taylor, 2009: 272).

1.2              Statement of the problem

The development of the telegraph brought on the first serious clashes between the military and the media. During the Civil War, Confederate forces have a lot of useful information in Northern newspapers. There was no effective national policy on censorship. Some commanders have had good relations with the press, others not (Thompson, 2012).

However, the conflict is one of the features that define the modern world. Since the end of the Cold War, there have been innumerable conflicts that involved the death of millions of people and the suffering and displacement of millions more. It is impossible to precisely quantify human suffering owing to the conflict. To take just one indicator - it was suggested that, in the last decade, over two million children have died in the conflict, more than a million orphaned and more than six million have been disabled or seriously wounded (Loren, 2012). A striking factor is the growing number of conflicts that have fundamentally corroded the ability of the state to take care of its citizens. The Institute of Stockholm International Peace Research (SIPRI) analyzed 59 armed conflicts "major" occurred since the end of the Cold War. In this case, "major" means they are involved in more than 1,000 battle-related deaths in a year. Of these, the majority were intrastate. Because of these protracted conflicts many states have effectively collapsed or are very fragile (Watson, 2008).

Secondly, during thesewars, there were a lot of press reviews for its reporting practices, but relations with the military were relatively good. Many journalists have complained of government controls, but the report was mostly positive after a little war in the press felt they were too positive as Charles Lynch, a Canadian journalist, complained, censorship later, negative stories on the conduct of war and conflict on the reports of the UN peace talks have all contributed to the tension. Although these tensions were the precursor to future problems, the relationship seemed to work as Major Larry Watson said: "The legacy of the first war was a nation, government and military, which has come to expect the press support during the war (Winant, 2007).

However, the first problem was that administrations were very sensitive to negative publicity. This in itself was surprising, or problem. Negative publicity Dislike is normal. The problem arises when the first attempts to counter the bad press turned on and off-out-- deception.

Finally, the media in general has been particularly adept at accurately cover the war. Many journalists in the country are not trained to cover the military, and some were more interested in sensational stories in accuracy. As a result, many of them did not have a good understanding of military matters which led to reports that were inaccurate and tendentious. In addition, advances in technology, especially television, have resulted in new priorities for the press (Michael, 2011).

1.3              Objective of the study

The general objective of the study is to find out the role of traditional media in mobilizing support during military operation.

Specifically, the study will:

1.      Examine the role of traditional media in mobilizing support during military operation.

2.      Determine the extent to which the traditional media impact on military operation

3.      Examine the functions of the traditional media in nation-building.

4.      Evaluate the ways in which the traditional media influence events insociety.

1.4              Research questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

1.      To what extent do the traditional media contribute to military operation?

2.      What are the factors which influence the role of traditional media in military operation?

3.      In what ways do the traditional media influence events in the society?

4.      What are the key issues for determining traditional media influence thesociety?

5.      How well have the traditional media contributed to military operation?

1.5       Significance of the study

This study is therefore significance because it will help research students or scholars, as well as those who wish to specialise in this area of study, to understand and be in position to analyse the major causes or influence the role of traditional media have in military operation in Nigerian politics and society in general, again the main roles being played by ethno political organisations in Nigeria whether positive or negative, and finally, to understand the prospects and challenges being faced by the military and ethno political organisations in Nigeria‟s transition to civil rule.

Policy makers will not be left out in terms of the significance of this study as they may be able to design policies that could lead to an effective use of media. As a final point, it possibly would serve as a work of reference to future researchers in that area.

1.6       Scope of the Study

The study is limited to the role of traditional media in mobilizing support during military operation.

1.7       Limitation of the Study

Financial constraints and other academic work in appearance.  They were a few manuals in the school library that would have helped as well as magazines. Once more, the nature of the topic new and event involved in the cause of completing this research work.





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