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1.1 Background of the study
Technological advancement in communication technologies has continued to eulogize television as a powerful medium of mass communication. Interestingly, television programme span around the circuits of human endeavour including politics, culture and education.
Udeajah (2004, p.7) affirm this when he notes that:
We all know in truth broadcasting has become an indispensable form for the practice of politics and governance in all modern nation states. The reasons are quite simple. No other medium can deliver as large and instantaneous an audience to the politicians or government as broadcasting can. It is also the belief all over the world that broadcasting is an eminently persuasive medium; omnipresent in people‟s homes, working places even in transit. It is akin to a second skin through which most people stay in touch with their immediate environment and the world at large.
It is therefore in recognition of this that the federal government in 1992 deregulates the broadcasting industry. What hitherto was the exclusive of the government become open for all Nigerians; this marked a turning point in the history of television broadcasting in Nigeria.
The first television station in Nigeria was (WNTV) in 1959, this was followed by the Eastern Nigerian Broadcasting Service in 1960 and the Broadcasting Corporation of Northern Nigeria (BCNN) and then to the era of deregulation.
Supposedly, private television stations emerged. They includes: African Independent Television (AIT), MINAJSystem Station Obosi, Silver bird Communications, Unity TV Communication, Chrone TV Choffaan Communication etc.
Commending the federal government DecreeN0. 38 of 1992 on the deregulation broadcasting sector, Okenwa (2000, p.53) stated thus:
The year 1992 marked a critical turning point in the development of the broadcast media Nigeria. It came with policies that were to revolutionalize the media industry through allowing private participation in ownership of the electronic media.
The deregulation of broadcasting in Nigeria widened the scope of programming, performance scheduling as well as scope of competition in the sector. Both old and new television stations began to compete with each other so as to remain in the business and make profit.
Duru and Okafor (2003, p.136) supported this statement thus:
The advertiser perceives the broadcast deregulation, because the resultant effects of their advert messages in audience are encouraging. Similarly, research shows that privatization has resulted in more job, mobility, creativity challenge and healthy competition, which make for the exploitation of hidden creative talents.
Indeed, private participation in the ownership and operation of television stations increased qualitative competition. This has resulted in the packaging of quality programmes for audience viewership. Such competition has arguably spurred government television stations out of their seeming compliancy. They have now risen up to the occasion in order to sustain themselves in businesses in line with the capitalist orientation of our economy.
It is surprising therefore that station like Anambra Broadcasting Service (ABS). Enugu State Broadcasting Service (ESBS) and Broadcasting Corporation of Abia State
(BCA) have continued to package local and foreign programmes for the viewership of the target audience.
Interestingly too, most of these foreign television programmes are specifically packaged and transmitted for the viewership of Nigerian students. This implies that there is something about education which such foreign television programmes intend to impact on the psyche of the Nigerian student, it is assumed there must be a corollary between such foreign programmes and the social behaviours of the students.
These foreign films are specifically aired to impact some measures of social tenets on the behaviours of the students. They are not transmitted for the purpose of transmission but to influence the social behaviour of these students. The problem therefore, is whether students actually expose themselves to the viewership of such programmes and if they do, is the exposure minimal or maximal and to what extent such foreign television programs impact on their social behaviours.
1.2 Statement of the problem
There is no doubt that foreign film such as „‟Second Chance‟‟ has offered a lot of meaning and purpose to the social lives of Nigerian students. Some students see them as a way to shake up and release tensions. Some others value their entertainment functions and some see them as away to keep in touch with the so called latest fashion trend.
Whichever way the youths perceive foreign films is an indication of their bias against local movies. Such bias is an indication of their disorientation to cultural orientation and values. It is generally assumed in many quarters that there are gross violations of moral issues in most of these foreign films.
The question this research seeks to answer therefore is: what is the influence of „‟ Second Chance‟‟ a popularly broadcast foreign film on the social behaviour of the undergraduate students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka.
1.3 Research objectives
The study had the following objectives:
1. To find out if the students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka are aware of the foreign film „‟Second Chance‟‟.
2. To find out how often the students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka watch “Second Chance”.
3. To find out at which extent the students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka prefer watching Second Chance to local films.
4. To find out the reasons they watch Second Chance.
5. To determine if the film has any influence on their social lives.
1.4 Research questions
This research effort will centre on the following research question.
1. Are the students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka aware of the foreign film „‟ Second Chance‟‟?
2. How often do the students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka watch “Second Chance”?
3. To what extent do the students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka prefer watching “Second Chance” to local films?
4. What are the reasons why UNIZIK students watch Second Chance?
5. Does Second Chance film have any influence on the social lives of Nnamdi Azikiwe student?
1.5 Scope of the study
This study is delimited to regular students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. The researcher shall however study subset of student‟s population. Hence, final year students of English and Literature department, faculty of Art and final year students of Mass Communication department and Sociology department, faculty of Social Sciences and final year students of Educational Psychology and Educational Foundation, faculty of Education, would be studied for the purpose of this study.
The researcher‟s choice of the above departments derives from the relationship between television foreign programmes contents and their courses. They are therefore in a better position to provide relevant/correct answers to the questions raised in the questionnaire.
The researcher would therefore study SECOND CHANCE foreign television programme transmitted every Monday and Friday by 10:pm by ABSTV. On the selected students from these departments for the purpose of the study.
1.6 Significance of the study
This is significance in the following ways:
1. It would help ABSTV Awka in particular and other television stations in general to note if Nnamdi Azikiwe University students are aware of the film“Second Chance”.
2. It will enable such TV station to note how often Nnamdi Azikiwe University students Awka watch “Second Chance”.
3. It will enable such TV station to check if UNIZIK students prefer “Second Chance to local films.
4. It will help the TV station to find out the reason UNIZIK student watch Second Chance.
5. It will help to determine if the film has any influence on their lives.
1.7 Limitation of study
The study of Second Chance TV foreign programme could limit the generalizability of this work. Moreover, the researcher experienced initial apathy on the part of the students. It however took consistent persuasion by the researcher to gain the respondents interest and participation as evidence in the high return rate of distributed questionnaire.
During the course of this study, the following assumptions will be made:
1. My respondents are undergraduate students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University. Awka.
2. My respondents have access to “Second Chance”; Foreign TV programme.
3. There has been an increasing influence of second chance on the social behaviour of these students.
1.9 Operational definition of terms
1. Influence: The effect of programme content on the audience.
2. Programme: The arrangement and packaging of message content to an identified mass audience group. Or list of programme which a particular broadcast station (ABSTV) offers daily.
3. Television: This is an electronic medium through which pictorial message are passed or transmitted to the audience.
4. Second Chance: A foreign TV programme aired on ABSTV every Monday and Friday at 10: pm.
5. Social Behaviour: Connected with activities in which people meet eaqch other for pleasure.
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