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This study aimed at giving insight to the influence of television commercial on family buying habit of peak milk in Uyo Urban metropolis. There are different types of television commercial such as; public announcements, goodwill messages etc. but, this study dealt with the aspect of advertisement as the dominant of other types of commercial. Careful empirical studies have shown that advertising actually influence people’s choices in consumption of some goods and services especially, peak milk in cans and sachet. This study is a research survey based on a sample size of 300 viewers of television commercial who also have knowledge of the subject in research. The chapter one of this study unfolds the problem and its setting as well as the definitions of advertising and its effects on the consumers buying habits with relation to a particular medium, “television”. In addition, acceptance to its messages shows the significant for unique selling appeal and repetition of television messages.
THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING
Advertising is the non-personal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, services or ideas by identified sponsors through the various media (Corttand L. Bovee, 1992, P, 7).
According to history, advertising began in the early time when most people could not read and write thereby causing a change from time to time since its origination. Perhaps, as at 400 B. C. until the invention of printing press in about 1436, its role has been significantly altered at least twice. Once in respond to the industrial sector and again with the avert of affluent society.
The world war 11 era was been marked by growth, television advertisement, intense marketing competition, and increased attempts to differentiate products through strategies or other techniques. Naturally, advertising is governed by strategies but the basic message remains the same; whether it is in television process, posters, radio or billboards. But, each media calls for differing technique and offers its advantages and opportunities. In television, one can communicate in both sight and sounds and that is what makes television so powerful.
With the introduction of commercial television in 1955, it brought in the ability of going right into homes of consumers to demonstrate or introduce new products to the consumers with the persuasion of door-to-door salesman. Television as a medium of communication was however, not popular in Nigeria before the mid 70s due to its high cost and was then restricted to the rich. But the above situation changed during the era of oil boom and development of new technologies which helped the people to buy television sets at affordable prices.
Today, television as a medium of advertising is now in almost every home, even in rural areas, people now have access to visual communication by watching advertisements on television either in their houses, or in their neighbours houses. By so doing, manufacturers are rest assured that their messages will get to the targeted audience. Moreso, the advertiser must also understand the complexity of human behaviour and variety of influences on behaviour of consumers. Consumer’s behaviour is affected by both internal and external influences. Internal influences include; the consumer’s perception and habit; while an external influence includes the consumer’s family, social structure, and culture. How these factors integrate within the consumer will determine how the consumer will react towards a particular advertisement.
Television advertising has been used to battle against competitors by introducing various designs. For instance, peak milk used some slogan such as; milk “at its peak”, “rich and creamy”, “contains 28 vitamins and minerals”, and “instant full cream powder milk”. And these have been used to promote sales of peak milk to other brands like Three Crown, Cowbell, Miksi etc.
Thus, influence of television commercial on family buying habit of peak milk is the paramount importance to this research work.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Producing a television commercial and purchasing airtime is costly and it is the most expensive form of advertising. Television commercial production is often a complicated process which can involve a lot of manpower, time, and equipment. At times, due to lack of relevant information on products, television advertisements can be obscure and doubtful. Hence, not all viewers are attracted towards the advertisement (Lesely Henton an Ehow contributing writer).
In countries like America, where advertising on television has gained high heights, most people use the time occupied by commercials to do other activities, meaning that a large number of consumers do not watch television commercials (Mander, Jerry 1978: 5).
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study seeked to:
1. Examine the frequency of consumer’s exposure to television commercial.
2. Examine the influence of parents over children on family purchase decision.
3. Determine the extent to which advertising influences consumer’s choice of peak milk.
4. Make recommendations based on the study.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The research questions in the study are:
1. To what extent does television advertising influence the buying habit of consumers on peak milk?
2. Are consumers likely to remember products seen on television advertisement than other media?
3. Does repetition of advertisement create desire on consumers product purchase?
4. Are consumers frequently exposed to television commercial?
1.4 JUSTIFICATION FOR THE STUDY
This research will show the need for unique selling appeal and reputation of television messages for a product like peak milk. It will also enable the producers to understand the best method to reach their heterogeneous consumers and also to know why television advertisement is mostly preferred to other media. Moreso, the study is of interest to the consumers because, it would portray the extent to which the weakest link in the family decide which product to buy and which one to by pass.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Television advertising as a wide one is sometimes, classified into many perception variables in terms of contents, discipline and applications. This study does not seek to cover the entire television advertising rather, the area that is concerned with the influence or how it affects the consumer.
Thus, this study is basically limited to peak milk brand as regards to the area of influence on consumer bebhaviour in terms of choice, patronage and satisfaction. Also, this study is restricted to consumers in Uyo Urban for both convenience and financial reasons.
1.6 DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
In this study, the following key words were further defined and explained as applicable to the study.
Advertising: An act of making something known to the people through any of the channels of mass communication and persuading them for positive action toward that thing.
Advertisement: This refers to the message symbol employed by an individual or group or corporate body to make known to the public about goods and services for sale.
Exposure: The frequency with which a family views television commercial for how long and how much, in terms of hours a family watches or listens to commercial messages.
Consumer: A consumer is defined as someone who uses products of different types to satisfy the needs of that individual.
Influence: The power to affect somebody’s or peoples character, belief, or action through example or powerful presentation.
Commercial: In this study, commercial means broadcast advertisements or program put on television by an advertiser.
External influence: These are the environmental factors that affect the consumer such as, family’s social structure and culture.
Internal influence: These are personal needs and motive of the consumers, his perception, the habit he had developed that influences his behaviour.
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