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This study on the consumer preference for toothpaste brands in Enugu metropolis Enugu state is intended to closely understand how consumers make their brand choice.
The objective of the study is as follows: to find out the major factors that influence consumers preference of toothpaste brands.
To identify consumers preference for toothpaste brands.
To determine the retail outlet preferred by consumers.
To determine the attributes that will influence consumer to prefer one brand of toothpaste to another.
An intensive literature review was carried out. A convinced stratified sampling technique was used. Questionnaire administered, out of 210 questionnaire distributed (180) completed ones were returned.
The data from the 180 respondents were presented in tables and then analysed. On analyzing the data, the following results were arrived at:- it was realized that price, quality and taste which ranked 1st to 3rd are the major factors influencing consumers preference of toothpaste brands.
It was realized that out of eight brands of toothpaste listed, 3 ranked positive to show consumers prefer them more than others.
It was also realized that consumers prefer buying the brand of their choice in and open market followed by Kiosk, super market and lastly provision store. And finally the major attribute consumers prefer is packaging.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Approval page ii
Table of contents vii
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of problem 6
1.3 Objective of the study 6
1.4 The significance of the study 7
1.5 scope of the study 7
1.6 Research question 9
1.7 Definition of terms 10
2.0 Review of related literature 12
2.1 meaning of the sample tools used 12
2.2 Consumer behaviour 13
2.3 External Determinant of Consumer behaviour 15
2.3.1 Cultural factors 15
2.3.2 Personal factors 21
2.4 Psychological factors 24
2.4.1 Marketing mix programme of toothpaste 33
2.4.2 Product strategies 34
2.4.3 Price strategy 35
2.4.4 Product Availability 38
2.5 Adoption process and the diffusion of innovation 40
2.5.1 Adoption categories 41
2.5.2 Consumer preference 43
2.5.3 Brand and customer loyalty 45
2.5.4 Types of Brand loyalty 47
2.5.5 Brand switching by customers 48
2.6 Summary of the related problem 50
3.0 Research methodology 52
3.1 Research Design 52
3.2 Area of the study 52
3.3 Population of the study 53
3.4 Sample and sapling procedure 54
3.5 Instrumentation 54
3.6 Validation of instrument 55
3.7 Reliability of the instrument 55
3.8 Method of administration of instrument 55
3.9 Method of data analysis 56
4.1 Data presentation and Result 57
4.2 Summary of Result 62
5.1 Discussion of Results 64
5.2 Conclusion 65
5.3 Implication of the Results 66
5.4 Recommendation 66
5.5 Suggestion for further research 67
5.6 Limitation of the study 67
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Many business firms are struggling hard to know who buys and consumes their products, where they are located, how they buy, when, from whom else they buy and why, equally, why people do not buy a particular product from certain persons, organizations, and stores inspite of all the marketing strategies applied by such firms to attract these consumers. The center point of all the daily activities of all business organization as an individual, organization or institution who purchase and makes use of the product (goods and service) offered for sale in the business firm. In this definition, we can understand that a consumer is one who consumers or uses the product (goods and services) offered for sale in the business firm. In this definition, we can understand that a consumer is one who consumers or uses the product of a firm. He may or may not be the actual buyer of the firms production who then is the consumer of that product.
The consumer has been recognized and the reasons why, how and when as well as where they buy or not buy from, the future buying decision, are now fully integrated into the daily business function of every enterprise, this is in much recognition of the marketing concept and consumers sovereignty in recent time by many firms who comes to realise that the consumers needs are satisfied. the consumer is now at the centre point of every business attention, as the period of fast and hard selling is giving way to the much recognition of the consumer as the king or one who does no wrong and one whose existence and need satisfaction is the major reason why many business organisations are in business in the first instance.
It is important also to note that when a manufacturer provides a product he does so in anticipation of profit. In marketing profits are usually made through the satisfaction of the needs and wants of the ultimate consumers. However, it is not enough to know what a buyer wants. An inquiry should also be made to find out why the buyer wants a particular product. In view of these facts on the obligation of the manufacturers, wholesalers and also the retailers to lean as a much as is economically feasible about the major factors that influence consumers buying behaviour. This is an important factor in planning of all marketing activities, which among others include establishing of advertisement and selling appeals in such a manner that consumers desires, taste and preferences can be met satisfactorily by marketing efforts.
Brand choice which implies selecting one brand over a set of possible alternatives is an area of consumer behaviour which has received considerable attention by manufacturers and markets alike. Infact the concept of brand choice seems to be important according to parker 1979 vol 4p.4. It can result in the difference. According to Walter G.C (1974 pg 180), he argued that the consumer is simultaneously influenced by physiological and psychological factors have to do with the individual feelings, biases and emotions”. He also said that some more important factors influencing a persons preference are subjective satisfaction consumer needs, fast experience, product availability and product or brand price.
Moreover, Maranyama and Manku (1975) vol. 39 p.5) said that a consumer appears to make his purchases decision among the brands in his “Evoked set”. Thus a seller must organize his effort in such a way that his particular brand is positioned with these selection in the buyers cognitive field.
Cambell (1973, p. 243) has also defined evoked set as “The act of alternative brands of product which the buyer actually consider when making specific brand preference”. In other words, awareness of whom customers are and how they behave or likely to behave is very essential for effective marketing and success depends upon correctly predicting consumers brand preferences.
Morden A.R.S (1991) point of view, the influence of product attribute people purchases beahviour is determined by a whole series of behavioural factors which are used to explain why buyers need and or want certain products. The marketers must understand why people want or need a product so he can group or (segment) different people according to those reasons for purchase.
Also attributes such as price, package, design and level of awareness also influence brand preference of products. People may also seek for the benefit that product provides rather then products themselves. Consumers may also consider the available alternative from the vantage point of the usage context with which they experience the specific application they are considering.
In Nigeria today, the range of toothpaste products ahs continued to increase steadily. Some of the brands we have in the market today are:
i. Close up
iii. Aqua fresh
vi. Daily need
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