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Contact                                                                                                    Page

Title page                                                                                                    i

Declaration                                                                                                 ii

Certification                                                                                                 iii

Dedication                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                        v

Table of Contents                                                                                        vi

List of Tables                                                                                              viii

List of Figures                                                                                             ix

Abstract                                                                                                      x


1.1 Background of the Study                                                                       1

1.2   Statement of the Problem                                                                     3

1.3   Aim of the Study                                                                                 4

1.4   Significance of the Study                                                                     4

1.5   Scope of the Study                                                                              4


2.1     Use of Irvingia Gabonensis as A Viscosifier for Water-Based Mud     7

2.2     The Use of Galena as Weighting Material in Drilling Mud                  7

2.3     Improvement of Rheological Properties of Drilling Fluid Using

Locally Based Materials                                                                     8

2.4   Drilling Mud Formulation Using Potato Starch (Ipomoea Batatas)        9

2.5  Drilling Fluid Formulation Using Cellulose Generated From

Groundnut Husk                                                                                 10

2.6   Unprocessed Ota Kaolin as A Weighting Additive in Drilling Fluid      10

2.7     Utilization of Shredded Waste Car Tyres as a Fracture Seal Material

(Fsm) in Oil and Gas Drilling Operations                                            11

2.8   Banana and Plantain                                                                            12


3.1   Materials Used                                                                                    13

3.2   Apparatus and Equipment                                                                    13

3.3   Processing of Banana and Plantain Peel Samples                                  13

3.4    Preparation of Drilling Mud                                                                 14

3.5   Determination of Mud Density or Mud Weight                                     14

3.6   Determination of Mud Viscosity                                                          15

3.7   Determination of Gel Strength                                                             15

3.8   Determination of Solid Content                                                           15

3.9   Determination of pH                                                                            16

3.10 Determination of Filtration Loss                                                           16


4.1 Results                                                                                                  18

4.2 Discussion                                                                                             21


5.1 Conclusion                                                                                             22

5.2 Recommendation                                                                                   22

References                                                                                                  23


Table                                                                                                       Page

Table 4.1: Result of mud properties beneficiated with banana peel dust         18

Table 4.2 Result of mud properties beneficiated with plantain peel dust

Plantain                                                                                       19


Figures                                                                                                     Page

Figure 4.1: Gel strength measurement result                                                 19

Figure 4.2: Filtration loss measurement result                                               20

Figure 4.3: Yield point measurement result                                                  20

Figure 4.4: Cake thickness measurement result                                             20

Figure 4.5: Plastic viscosity measurement result                                            21

Figure 4.6: Apparent viscosity measurement result                                        21



With a view to converting waste to wealth and reducing the cost of purchasing materials such as barite, CMC, etc. used in beneficiating mud to meet specific requirements and conditions encountered while drilling oil and/or gas well, banana and plantain peels were used. These were sun-dried, grounded and used in preparing mud samples. Experimental studies were conducted to ascertain their effect on drilling mud properties. Results obtained shows that the materials (ground banana and plantain peels) used poorly affect a drilling fluid as the rheological properties of the mud were very low compared to the non-beneficiated mud. Also, the fluid loss was very high, wall cake was thick and the pH was weakly alkaline while some samples showed acidic pH.  The materials used were thus seen as bad beneficiating agents.




1.1   Background of the Study

Drilling mud is any liquid used in drilling activities. In its simplest form, it is composed of just water. Unfortunately, water can only be used in drilling the first few feet of the oil or gas well. This is because, it lacks the properties required to withstand the conditions encountered further down the formation. These conditions vary from place to place due to differences in geologic structure of the area under consideration.

In general, a drilling fluid – which may be a liquid or a gas or a combination of both, as in foam drilling – is expected according to Hughes (1995) to perform the following functions:

1. Remove drilled cuttings from under the bit

2. Carry those cuttings out of the hole

3. Suspend cuttings in the fluid when circulation is stopped

4. Release cuttings when processed by surface equipment

5. Allow cuttings to settle out at the surface

6. Provide enough hydrostatic pressure to balance formation pore pressures

7. Prevent the bore hole from collapsing or caving in

8. Protect producing formations from damage which could impair production

9. Clean, cool, and lubricate the drill bit

Annis and Smith (1974) reports that in addition to these functions, there are several other functions with which the drilling fluid should not interfere namely:

1. Formation evaluation

2. Completion operations

3. Production operations

Inorder to effectively perform these functions, a number of additives are usually added. The principle additive being clay. Other additives serve to perform specific functions such as; controlling density, viscosity, pH, gel strength, etc.

The usefulness of the drilling fluid cannot be overemphasized as a drilling operation cannot commence successfully from beginning to end without using it.

Almost every drilling problem has a link, directly or indirectly with the performance of the drilling fluid. This is not to say that the drilling fluid can be traced as the source or solution of all problems encountered during drilling operations, rather, as a tool that can often be used to alleviate a difficult drilling situation (Skalle, 2010).

Therefore, in general, a drilling fluid should be seen as a very vital and intricate part of the whole drilling process that should be used to complement other aspects of the operation. For any drilling operation to be termed successful, care must be taken during the selection and application of the drilling fluid which are key factors that should be considered. Any actions contrary to carefully selection and application of drilling fluids could have very dire consequences ranging from destruction of the drilling rig equipment, non-productive time leading to financial losses, damage to environment and loss of lives of crew workers, therefore the properties of drilling fluids must from the onset of the drilling operation, and at regular intervals, be monitored, tested and investigated to ascertain they have the desired qualities all the way, and in most cases, drilling mud agents are added to the muds if needed to necessitate a successful drill operation (Skalle, 2010).

1.2   Statement of the Problem

Preparation of drilling mud (bentonite) with other recommended additives (local and international) has evolved drastically over the years. However, most of the components used in its formulation as at present is imported. It is well known foreign additives have been used for years because of their contents and effectiveness. Such importation, apart from draining the nation’s reserves in hard currency, is also inimical to local content policy being currently promoted for the oil industry in the country. Thus, the need for local sourcing of components such as clays, or close substitutes has become imperative.

In this study, the effect of banana and plantain peels on mud properties will be analyzed.

1.3   Aim of the Study

The present study is aimed at assessing the effect of dried banana and plantain peels on drilling mud rheological properties.

Objectives of this studies are as follows:

1.     Formulation of a drilling mud using bentonite clay

2.     Beneficiating the formulated mud using banana and plantain peel

3.     Checking the effect of the plantain and banana peel on the beneficiated mud

1.4   Significance of the Study

Results of this study will provide the industry with a new efficient, cost effective, locally sourced drilling fluid component to be used oil and gas well drilling. As the material to be used is a waste, it will provide a means of converting waste to wealth, reduce the importation of some drilling mud components, thus boosting in a way the nations income and reducing cost to oil and gas companies.

1.5   Scope of the Study

The study will only consider investigation of the effect of the materials under investigation to mud rheological properties.

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