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This research work is designed to investigate the role of health education on immunization Abakwa, Unguwan Shanu ward of kaduna north local government area of kaduna state. this study will help to highlight a good and acceptable reason for the research as to determine the effectiveness of health education on immunization among children 0-5 years and women of child bearing age. it is also discovered that immunization do fail because of poor or in adequate knowledge of health personnel, poor or inadequate government support, ignorance of community members they are motivated to always participate in immunization programme and more awareness campaign concerning immunization. The data for the research were collected through the use of questionnaire and direct interviewed, About 100 questionnaire were are sent out to respondents, same number retuned, all contained information on the subject matter. They were all analyzed, findings, government should be organizing training for health personnel and also build conducive health facilitates for effective immunization programme (session) and provide incentives to mothers for motivation.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Education according to Asusu (1994) transmit technological knowledge from one person to the other, from one generation to another and to acts as an agent of social change and control which ushers in or stimulates development. Adekunje(1999) further declared that education is an agent or person progress in our communities and the development of society of large generally, education is a dynamic process of acquiring new skills. Knowledge values and norms that enable the individual to function effectively in society. In primary health care, health education is one of the components which is the primary means of achieving the millennium development goals of health for all. Health is integral part of the overall development. productively and efficiency of a nation and can only be attained of individual, communities work is therefore much concerned with the health promotion and education in every community in Nigeria the factors influence health care social cultural economical as well as biological, environmental and essentially behavior and attitudes health education is said to be a science and art which help to change all the negative perceptions, behaviors and practice towards promotion and attainment of good health.
It should be noted that, no one health education strategy is the best for all situations, rather it is the combination of the various strategies since health education is aimed at improving the health of the through encouraging them to report early for diagnosis and treatment.
All these opinions put together, health education strategies should be such that have long lasting impression on the people mind and something that gradually wipe away ignorance and poverty from their cradle.
i. Immunization remains the most cost effective tool to reducing childhood morbidity and mortality occurring from vaccines preventable disease such as tuberculosis, poliomyethis, dipthens whooping cough tetanus, measles, yellow fever, hepatitis B and cerebrospinal meningitis (CSM).
ii. in recognition of the above, the national programe on immunization (NPI) has continued in its efforts is implement sustainable strategies and intervention. in collaboration with the state local government and partner with the vision of meeting immunization a community operated services (WOPA, 2007). Furthermore, in line with its enabling act 12 of 1997, NPI has contrived to ensure the provision of potent vaccines to state and local government with corresponding qualities of needles and syringes. National programmes on immunization (NPI) has also supported the state local government area with cold chain and logistic equipment, human technical and financial support required for the programme implementation (USAID et al, 2014).
The goal of immunization programme is to get 80% of all children 0-2 years preschool child, immunized. By the years 2010and beyond and reduce measles morbidity and mortality.
The World Health Organization (WHO) launched expanded programme (EPI) and it was designed for children from the age of 0-2 years old, women of child bearing age of 15-45 years of age, with the aim of strengthening the primary health care. and for this reason, the world health organization set its target at 80% coverage on expanded programme. on immunization (EPI) by 1980 during the Alma Ata declaration to reduce the death rate among children born in the third world.
iii. Health is the complete fitness of health is the complete fitness of body soundness of mind and whole some of emotion which make possible the high heat quality of effectiveness of living and services (udoh&jaj 1987). Nigeria expanded programme on immunization (EPI) was first initiated in 1979 for the first five years, there continue and consequent minimal impact on target disease. the federal government through the federal ministry of health continues to place high priority on immunization in 1999, a new drive to sustainable, revitalize the immunization system commenced, routine immunization in Nigeria remains a particular concern for the government of Nigeria and its development particular including world health organization (WHO) the government of Nigeria has part routine immunization high to its negative friend will significantly contribute toward achieving the millennium development goal (MDG) of reducing child mortality by 2015. the effective role of health education for effective immunization programme in Abakwa Community. it is hopeful that the study will impact positive charges of attitudes towards health education on immunization.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The frequent occurrence of defaulters has increase the morbidity rate of children in Abakwa community in Unguwan Shamu world of Kaduna north local government, the state and the country at large.
Band and Kebby (1999) maintain that increase morbidity rate among children is a major thing of concern to the international bodies and the most effective tool for reducing childhood morbidity and mortality rate is immunization. The immunization coverage still remains low the this could be attributed to insufficient health education programmes.
1.3 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
The result of this resource work will provide insight to the people of abakwa community in unguwan shamu ward of specifically women of child bearing age and the general public on the importance of immunization in other to reduce child mortality and morbidity rate. campaigns on immunization, workshops of health education and immunization programmes to improve the quality and strategies of implementation of health programme on immunization so as to reduce child mortality it will be useful to policy makers to formed rate velerance policies to improve immuniczation states through health education for further research for improved health education on immunization.
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The broad objective of the study is to assess the role of health education on immunization in Abakwa community in Ungnwan Shamu ward of Kaduna north local government area of Kaduna state. However, the following specific objectives are formulated.
i. To identify how community participation can improve immunization.
ii. To examine how songs, health takes, dramas and role play can improve immunization.
iii. To identify the role of media advertisement on immunization eduction programmes.
iv. To examine the attitudes of health works and government on immunization education.
v. To examine how awareness creation can improve immunization porogrammes.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. How does awareness creation improves immunization programmes
ii. Can community participation improve immunization
iii. How could songs health takes, role play and dramas improves Immunization programmes
iv. Does media advertisement has any effect on immunization programmes
v. Can the attitude of health education affect immunization programmes.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
As the aim of most research work is positively to already existing body knowledge, this study is limited to Abakwa community of Ungnwan Shamu ward of Kaduna north local government areas of Kaduna state. The study is conducted among men and woman of child bearing age, all the same, there were certain constrains encounter by the research such as:
· Financial difficulties
· limited time for the study
· Distance from the school to the area of the study.
· Data collection was difficult due to the complaisance of the people.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Children: for the purpose of this study and referred to as people from 0-5 years
NGO: Non-government organization
Intradermal: A medical term measuring into or within the upper layers of the skin
Immunity: is a state of protection against disease through the activities of the immunity system
Awareness: is the state of ability to perceive, to tell or be conscious of events.
Advertisement: the action of making generally known a calling to extension of the public
Immunization: Is a process of introducing potent vaccine in to the body to prevent against a particular infections disease.
Vaccination: is the administration of antigenic substance to stimulated an individual immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
Vaccine: Is a preparation given to induce immunity against an infection disease
Mortality: Is a total number of deaths
Morbidity: Is the state of being ill.
WHO: world health organization
PHC: primary health care
NPI: National programme on immunization
Supplement: Something added to complete a thing, supply a deficiency, or reinforce or extend a whole e.g ( vitamine A to breast system of the body)
Subcutaneous: Beneath the skin
Prevention: It is the act of stopping the spread of disease.
EPI: Expanded programme on immunization.
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