ASSESSMENT OF PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION AMONG CHILDREN UNDER FIVE (5) YEARS OF AGE IN KADUNA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA KADUNA STATE NIGERIA

ASSESSMENT OF PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION AMONG CHILDREN UNDER FIVE (5) YEARS OF AGE IN KADUNA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA KADUNA STATE NIGERIA

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Table of contents

Title page................................................................................................i

Declaration............................................................................................ii

Approval page........................................................................................iii

Dedication.............................................................................................iv

Acknowledgement................................................................................v

Table of content....................................................................................vi-vii

List of tables..........................................................................................viii

Abstract ................................................................................................ix

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION

1.1          Background to the study                                                                          1-3

1.2          Theoretical frame work                                                                            3-5

1.3          Statement of the problem                                                                        5-6

1.4          Purpose of the study                                                                                  6

1.5          Research questions                                                                                     6

1.6          Significant of the study                                                                              7

1.7          Scope and limitations                                                                                 7

1.8          Operational definition of terms.                                                             7-8

CHAPTER II: LITRETURE REVIEW

2.1     Overview of under- five malnutrition                                                   9-12

2.2     Concept of malnutrition                                                                           12-14

2.3     factors in under- five malnutrition                                                        14-16

2.4      Importance of under-five malnutrition                                               16-18

2.5     Socio-cultural beliefs about under- five malnutrition                      18-23

2.6     Causes and clinical manifestation of malnutrition                             23-27

2.7     Diagnosis and management of under- five malnutrition                 27-28

2.8     Empirical validation of under- five malnutrition                                29-30

2.9     Ways to prevent under -five malnutrition                                           30-33

2.10     Summary of the chapter                                                                                    33      

CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY

3.0     Introduction                                                                                                 34

3.1     Design of the study                                                                                                34

3.2     The area of the study                                                                                 34

3.3     Population of the study                                                                            35

3.4     Sample & sampling techniques                                                               35

3.5     Instrument for data collection                                                                35

3.6     Validity of the instrument for data collection                                     36

3.7     Reliability of the instrument for data collection                                 36

3.8     Administration of the instrument                                                          36

3.9     Method of data analysis                                                                           36-37

3.10    Ethical consideration                                                                                37

CHAPTER IV: PRESENTATION OF DATA ANALYSIS

4.1     Introduction                                                                                                 38

4.2     Finding                                                                                                           38-49

4.3      Discussion of findings                                                                               49-53

4.4      Summary of findings                                                                                 53-54

CHAPTER V: SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.0     Introduction                                                                                                 55

5.1     Summary of procedure used                                                                  55-56

5.2     Discussion of finding                                                                                  56-57

5.3     The implication of finding                                                                         57-58

5.4     Conclusion                                                                                                    58

5.5     Recommendation                                                                                       58-59

5.6    Suggestions for further studies                                                                59

References                                                  

Appendix/questionnaire

List of tables

Table 4.1:     Showing the age of the respondents and

Their percentages

Table 4.2:     Showing sex of respondents

Table 4.3:     Marital status of respondents

Table 4.4:     Showing religious distribution

Table 4.5:     Educational level of respondents

Table 4.6:     Showing occupation of respondents

Table 4.7:     Showing the factors that predispose children

Under five (5) malnutrition

Table 4.8:     Showing the types of food that could be used during weaning Period

Table 4.9:     Showing factors influence behaviour of mother about

Under five malnutrition

Table 4.10:  Showing ways of preventing malnutrition among children

Under five.

Abstract

Assessment of protein energy malnutrition among under- five children in Kaduna north local government. Children needs are the same more especially during weaning period. Study assess factors predispose children under five malnutrition, food that could be used during weaning period, factors influencing behaviours of mothers about under five malnutrition, prevention of under- five malnutrition. The design is descriptive survey population 120;instrument is questionnaire it isvalidated. Tables were used with mean and standard deviation for data analysis. The finding agreement by respondent, knowledge of mother on factors predispose children malnutrition average mean value of 2.9, the type of food that could be used during weaning average mean value of 3.2, factors  influencing behaviours of mothers with average mean value of 2.8. Ways of prevention of under- five malnutrition average mean value of 3.7. Study recommended that parent should provide necessary food for their children.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1            Background of the study

      Many African countries are endowed with various and plentiful natural and human resources which is favourable for agricultural production particularly the sub-Saharan Africa. However, the child malnutrition remains one of the most fundamental challenges and biggest health burden of developing countries (WHO 2000 & 2007). It is leading factor for under-5 year’s child mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. UNICEF, (2006) malnutrition is also the most serious socio-economic and health problem which contributes to 2.2 million deaths worldwide for children less than five years old. According to sun movement progress report 2012 malnutrition problem affecting about 180 million children under five years age, especially stunting the result of chronic deficiency in nutrition starting from the period of pregnancy to the age of two years and have caused for damaging child physical and mental development.

     Recent studies show that malnutrition affects negatively for children of developing countries. According to WHO (2012), 1 in 6 children were estimated to be underweight in those countries and causes about 55% of all death of children under five years of age worldwide Pelletier et al (1994). A significant proportion of child morbidity and mortality in developing countries is attributable to child malnutrition Caulfield et al (2004), which is preventable if sufficient effort are made to overcome the problem for a child born in sub-Saharan Africa, the probability of dying before fifth birthday was 1.9 times higher than in south Asia, 6.3 times higher than in Latin American and the Caribbean, and 24 times higher than in industrialized countries (UNICEF, 2010).

     Malnutrition can be categorised in to under nutrition and over nutrition and at this time child under nutrition remains one of Africa’s fundamental challenges for improved economic development due to lack of enough time and capacities of care givers to provide adequate food and necessary health service for healthy life children’s. Hence an estimated 200 million people on the continent, both children and adults, are under nourished, their numbers having increased by almost 20% since the early 1990s (FAD, 2003).

     Existing literature revealed that nutrition affects children future development nutritional status hinders the physical and mental development of children. Moreover, it causes for over 28% of all deaths in Africa some 2.9 million death annually Ezzath et al (2003) studies also shows that being ,malnutrition in first fears life may influence future intellectual development and health of a child, thus affecting productivity of country (Levinsion and Bassett 2007).

     When a child’s natural growth is negatively impacted because his nutritional and caloric need are consistently unmet, his growth slows and the like hood of him completing secondary school and obtaining wage earning employment decreases (Alderman, Hoddinott and Kinsey, 2006). Additionally when women are malnourished as children they may be more likely experiencing complications during delivery of their own children and deliver low-birth-weight child (Alderman et al, 2006;Strauss& Thomas 1998).

     The impacts of malnutrition therefore have negative consequences for a population’s health and development in short and long of time. Moreover malnourished children has fallen the risk of dying from a disease is two time higher than that of well-nourished children, moderately malnourished are five times as likely to die and severally malnourished children have a risk that is eight times higher (UNICEF, 1998). Hence child malnutrition remains a major public health problem of the world.

     Townsend (2013) state that the children as they need care and sufficient balanced meal essentially for the promotion and maintenance of their growth and development from birth sufficient and exclusive breast milk is essential to feed an infant (as it contains all the nutrient needed by the body in the promotion growth and development).

     When they reach six (6) month of age they need to be introduced with supplementary feeding of about (150-200ml) of balanced meal preferably liquid from three times daily together with breast milk in order to maintain their growing phase. This supplementary feeding should be continuously increasing as child is advancing in age and weight accurately. For example from 12 months is between 300-400ml three times daily together with feeding as after as the child wants. This will help in the maintenance of children and grow normally.

     OLADI tan (1980) defines malnutrition as a condition resulting lack of sufficient energy or protein to meet the body’s metabolic demands, as a result of either an inadequate intake of protein, intake of poor quantity, dietary protein increase demands due to disease or increase nutrient losses.

1.2            Theoretical Frame Work

Income, diet quantity and quality and biological and functional outcomes.

          Income, energy supply and anthropometry income is a determinant of food intake, which in turn is a major factor in determining height in growing children and body weight. The letter pathway is illustrated in the “UNICEF Frame Work” (UNICEF, 1990; reproduced in

DIAGRAM

Figure 3) and is widely accepted as a common language for discussion-in shorthand, “food, health and care” being the proximal determinants of dietary intake and health, hence of nutritional status. Thus, it is clear that childanthropometry, weight-for-age or underweight and height-for-age or stunting, is a different measures than of energy intake. The extent to which it can substitute for measures of energy intake depends on both theory and observation. The theory is clear-these are two related but different measures. Because energy intake is so difficult to measure at the individual level, data to examine the actual relation are very scarce. Overall, there is no doubt that the relation between energy and anthropometry exist-at the national level at one point in time, for example; but whether, at this level, changes in energy supply are sensitively reflected in changes in anthropometric indicators is less clear. some result from aggregated data are briefly introduced to illustrate these points. In part because income data are more common than dietary energy data and these two have a well established relation. The three variables considered are income, dietary energy and child underweight. Data are from the 1980s to 1990s and were obtained from several standard sources. DES from FAD, national income (as measured by gross national product (GNP) from World Bank and underweight from ACC/SCN (1994, 1996).

1.3     Statement of the problem

The problem of malnutrition, protein energy malnutrition (PEM) in young children possess the most important and widespread nutritional problem in the world today. This is more so in developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America with a lower standard of living and poor nutritional habit. In adequate intake of protein, intake of poor quality dietary protein, increase demands due to disease or increase in nutrient losses etc. There is an overall deficiency of food regarded as disease of the poor.

     It has been realised that many parent fail to understand the important of food nutrient to their children, may be due to insufficient knowledge or ignorance on how to prepare weaning diet or abuse of administration of appropriate nutrient.

          Most of the children (under five) could not meet their nutritional requirement as a result of insufficient food item or financial constrains, poor eating habit or as a result of socio-cultural belief and practices by under five parent.

          As a result of the above mentioned factors I will like to carry out a study on; assessment of protein energy malnutrition among children under five (5) of age in Kaduna north local government area of Kaduna state.

1.4   purpose of the study

          The objectives of the study are:

·         To find out factors that predisposes children under five malnutrition.

·         To determine food that could be used during wearing period within the L.G.A.

·         To identify the factors influencing mothers behaviour about under five malnutrition.

·         To suggest ways for prevention of children under five malnutrition.

1.5       Research questions.

·         What are the factors predispose children under five malnutrition?

·         What type of food could be use for complimentary feeding to children under five?

·         What are the factors influencing behaviours of mothers about under five malnutrition?

·         What are the possible ways for prevention of under five malnutrition?

1.6        Significant of the study

          The researcher believes that the result of this study will provide the L.G.A. with information on assessment of protein energy malnutrition among children under five. This will enable them to know the beneficial role of adequate and regular giving of recommended or good balance diet to their children. The result of this study is going to be a reference point for the researchers who wish to embark on similar study. The result will be used by government to help in providing ideas on how to overcome the problem of malnutrition in the society.

1.7




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