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This study examined condom use campaign and its influence in the sexual life of students of University of Nigeria, Nsukka.The objectives of this study include the following: To determine the level of awareness in the use of condom among the students of University of Nigeria, Nsukka ,to analyze the trend of condom use campaign in Nigeria with particular reference to the students community of the university of Nigeria Nsukka and to determine the influence of condom use campaign on the sexual life of the students of University of Nigeria Nsukka.A total of 287 respondents were randomly selected within the two campuses and in various male and female hostels.Simple frequencies and tables were used to analyze date generated from the study. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component Analysis (PCA) was used to test the postulated hypotheses. The result of ANOVA recorded a P-value of 0.001 which showed significant difference on the perception of student on level of awareness of condom use campaign in the Campus. The PCA recorded total variance of 94.38120. This entailed significant pattern in condom use campaign and sexual life of students. Finding from the study ‘reveals that condom campaign is responsible for increase in sex habit of students as is the case of about 33% of students. This study established that condom use campaign and sexual innovation model is responsible for increase in sex habit and associated problems like have in 42% of sexual debut among students. The study also showed that 34% of students strongly agree that condom use campaign promotes sex addiction. However, the study upheld the fact that condom use have helped in saving life and controlled sexually transmitted diseases, there is therefore need to find a way to pass the message without causing more sexual habit problems. The study, therefore recommends, among others that emphasis must not only be on condom use. Abstinence should be emphasized as the best option, the government should re-orient our youth by putting together a Wholistic Reproductive Health Programme that will focus more on protective behaviour other than condom use.
1.1 Background of the Study
HIV/AIDS is one of the most widespread lethal diseases occurring in the world today (Scott, 2009). According to UNAIDS/WHO (2003) nearly 1 million Americans are infected with HIV, most of them through sexual transmission, and an estimated 12 million cases of other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) occurring each year in the United States, therefore effective strategies for preventing these diseases are critical. Sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection, are preventable. The connection between HIV infection and sexual risk behaviour in heterosexual relationships has been long established in sub-Saharan Africa. An estimated 5 million new HIV/AIDS infections occurred in sub-Saharan Africa in 2003, most the result of heterosexual transmission.
Several factors such as community environment (Peltzer et al. 2009), poverty (SANAC 2010), home environment (Green et al. 2009), drug abuse (Harrison, 2009) and others have been identified as instigators of sexual risk behaviour and more recently, have been linked to the spread of HIV in South Africa. It has been argued that gender systems in sub-Saharan Africa promote the spread of HIV through a variety of routes including inter alia: masculine identities that support dominance, sexual freedom, and sexual satisfaction (Schoepf, 1998); inequitable material resource allocation, meaning widespread female poverty and economic dependence upon men (Kaleeba et al, 1991); and a complex interplay between the norms and reality of partnership formation which implies both multiple sexual partners and barriers to condom use due to ideals of trust, honesty, and commitment within unions (Varga, 1997).
The effectiveness of responsible prevention strategies depends largely on the individual (CDC, 1996). Condoms are a key component of comprehensive HIV prevention. Condoms are known to be effective in preventing HIV among both men and women (Davis& Weller, 1991). The usage of condom is one of those various ways of preventing the infection of STD. Condoms are now widely used throughout the world. In Japan, 80% of sexually active people use condoms as their main method of contraception. However, it is hard to get an accurate picture of condom use, some teenagers and young adults might overestimate how often they use condoms during sex, a study found (MNT, 2009).Condoms, when used correctly and consistently, are highly effective in preventing HIV and other Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). As STIs cause significant morbidity and mortality, preventing the spread of the infectious agent throughout a susceptible population is generally more cost effective than approaches involving early detection and treatment. In the absence of a vaccine, abstinence, mutual monogamy, and condoms are options for preventing genital Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection.
In response to the recent congressional mandate to provide the public with more accurate information on the efficacy of condoms in preventing HPV-related infection, Condoms are highly effective in preventing pregnancies and slowing the spread of HIV and some other sexually transmitted reproductive health problems (Cates, 2001). Research has identified condom use as a feasible means to control the spread, particularly in many parts of southern and eastern Africa where the AIDS epidemics have advanced (Laukamm-Josten et al., 2000).A large body of scientific evidence shows that male latex condoms have an 80% or greater protective effect against the sexual transmission of HIV and other STIs (WHO, 2013). The strongest evidence of the role of male condoms in preventing disease transmission is for HIV. A meta-analysis of 25 studies of HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples provided a summary efficacy estimate of 87% (Manhart & Koutsky, 2002).However, due to the inclusion of inadequate measures of condom use and the lack of information on temporal sequence, it is not possible to use available data to draw definitive conclusions on the efficacy of condoms in the prevention of HPV-related conditions.
Condoms are steadily increasing in acceptance within causal relationships, but have made little progression into longer-term, monogamous relationships (Scott, 2009). Condom use is particularly important for women in the protection of HIV/AIDS as other methods of pregnancy prevention may be available to them. For men, condom use served the purpose of preventing both pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. Condoms have therefore been promoted as a major public health strategy to combat unwanted pregnancies and the rising rates of STIs, including HIV/AIDS. To derive maximum benefit, condoms must be used correctly and consistently; however consistent use requires long-term commitment and a reliable distribution network that provides condoms even to the poorest groups (World Bank, 1997).
Condom use is one of the major forms of family planning that reduces the likelihood of contracting sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS. It also reduces the risk of unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions, and enhances adequate child spacing. Condom use is particularly important for women in the protection of HIV/AIDS as other methods of pregnancy prevention may be available to them (Akinyemi et al, 2010). When used correctly and consistently, condoms are a reliable method of preventing pregnancy, and have no medical side effects. According to World Health Organization (2005), the male condom is 98% effective, and the female condom 94% effective when used according to instructions.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The United States of America, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and other advanced democracies have led in the pursuit of Sexual Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS prevention, control and the need for sex education and youth awareness campaign. Also, leading developing nations are South Africa, Zimbabwe, Namibia, The Philippines and Indonesia have led in championing policies to address prevention of the spread of HIV-related diseases. The need for countries to develop intensive HIV/AIDS response has become of great importance. For emphasis, the Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus (HIV) is transmitted through blood and sexual fluids of an HIV infected person when sharing needles or syringes during drug usage, through infected blood transfusions, during unprotected sexual intercourse with someone who is not yet infected.
The statement of the problem is that various condom mass media campaigns by the organizations and similar agencies on the campaign of condom use is not directly proportionate to its use or reduce the spread of STDs. Neglect and avoidance of condom use constitute a major challenge in the attempt to eradicate HIV-related diseases. Although, most Nigerians have fairly widespread knowledge of the disease in addition to its condom preventive measure, nevertheless their use of condoms is comparably low, manifested through numerous patterns of unsafe sexual practices. It is important too, to note that unethical sexual behaviour is not only found among the uneducated class but also found among the educated class. Therefore, ethical condom use campaign has market advantage if it is strategically positioned.
However, this study seek to examine the condom use among students of the Nigerian tertiary institutions with particular reference to the University of Nigeria, Nsukka which is the major cause of the spread of HIV/AIDs diseases. In trying to look into sexual discrepancies and proffer a way forward towards a state of efficient public enlightenment among students, that enhances sustainable health and social value, this research work emanated.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of the study is to investigate the influence of condom use campaign on the sexual life of the students of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Hence, the specific objectives of the study are to:
i. Determine the level of awareness in use of condom use among the students of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka;
ii. Analyze the trend of condom use campaign in the Nigeria with particular reference to the students’ community of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka;
iii. Determine the influence of condom use campaign on the sexual life of the students of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions will be addressed in this study, these include:
i. To what extent do the students of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka aware of condom use?
ii. What is the current trend of condom use campaign among the student of the University students?
iii. To what extent does condom use campaign influence the sexual life of the students of the University?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
For the stated objectives of the study to be achieved the following Null Hypotheses will be tested:
i. Ho: There is no significant difference in the perception of student on level of awareness in the use of condom in the study area.
ii. H1: There is no significant pattern of condom use campaign and sexual life of student in the study area.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The significance and justification for this study among others are firstly, to engage student population of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka to be adequately informed of sex-related issues as a result of unethical sexual behaviour and unguided or unprotected sexuality. This will enhance the students’ understanding of sex and thereby increase their consciousness of danger associated with unethical sexual life.
The study will facilitate understanding of condom use and strict compliance to its proper and effective usage. The study will also the students of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka and other tertiary institution around the world in efficient evaluation of ready available alternative to casual and unethical sexual life in the study area. More so, provide useful guidance data to undertake assessment of social life vis a vis sexual partner and behaviour of the students of the Nigerian tertiary educational institutions and its impacting effects. Besides, it is beneficial to the entire student’s populace as ethical social life is required of them at all time.
This study will assure commitment of the various organizations and stakeholders in health and educational sectors to general public enlightenment about the use of contraceptives so as to prevent sexual-related diseases and unwanted pregnancies. The study should stimulate national policies and programmes for the inclusion of sex education in the curriculum. It is therefore relevant for improved and ethical social life. It will further enhance research in development studies.
1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study
Human sexuality is generally described as the sum total of manner through which people experience and articulate their sexual sensation. However, most of these studies have their focus on premarital sexual behaviour, knowledge and attitudes towards sex, high risk sexual behaviour, and contraceptive usage with restricted attention on student’s sexual behaviours. Recent developments in human sexual behaviour make it imperative for us to increase our knowledge base about diverse aspects of human sexuality. On this premise, this paper investigates the condom use campaign and its influence in the sexual life of students of university of Nigeria, Nsukka.
However, there are several limitations to the study are envisaged. These would be reported at the conclusion of this study.
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