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The purpose of the study was to find out the basic personal hygiene knowledge and practices among primary school children in OredoLocal Government Area of Edo State. To determine that basic hygiene refers to practices that help to maintain health and prevent the spread of diseases. In carrying out the study, the questionnaire method was used to determine the basic personal hygiene knowledge and practices among primary school children in OredoLocal Government Area of Edo State.
1.1 Background of the study
Basic hygiene refers to practices that help to maintain health and prevent the spread of diseases. It involves regular washing of body, washing the hands when necessary, cutting of nails, washing ones clothing, keeping the hair neat and brushing of teeth. School children are particularly vulnerable to neglect of basic personal hygiene (Enahoro and Orokj, 1986). The consequences in terms of morbidity and mortality are also more severe in them compared to adults. The increased burden of communicable diseases among school children due to poor personal hygiene practices and inadequate sanitary conditions remains concern on the public health agenda in developing countries. Poor knowledge, practice and attitudes towards personal hygiene play major roles in the high incidence of communicable diseases and therefore has negative consequences for the child’s long term overall development. The hands are probably the most important route for transmission f infection in the home and community, as they often have indirect contact with the mouth, nose and conjunction (Urwhttp://www.ifh-hollehygiene.org). They also came in contact with food and water that is consumed. It has been revealed that there is a strong and consistent caused link between poor hand hygiene and gastrointestinal infection (WHO, 2002) certain respiratory infections have also been linked to poor personal hygiene practices. Good hand washing and other hygienic practices encouraged through health education has been reported to communicable diseases in school, children (Long-Shan, 2000). Understanding the level of knowledge and practices related to basic personal hygiene among school children in OredoLocal Government Area of Edo State.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Globally, the high mortality and morbidity due to communicable diseases among school age children has been attributed to their neglect of poor personal hygiene. Children need to be taught and guided by adults to be able to adopt certain behaviours as regards their health and well-being. To effectively address the issue of communicable disease among school children, parents, teachers, and other stake holders must work out modalities to take and encourage children to adopt good hygiene practice. However, it has been observed that little or nothing is been done to inculcate these practices among school children hence increase in the rate of contact/spread of these communicable diseases and worse mortality from these diseases. Therefore if adequate measures are put in place, communicable disease can be reduced to its barest minimum among school children.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are;
1. To ascertain the knowledge and practice of basic personal hygiene among school children in OredoLocal Government Area of Edo State
2. To examine the relationship between poor hygiene practice and communicable diseases.
3. To ascertain the all primary schools in Oredo local Government practice hygiene
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: there is no practice of basic personal hygiene among school children in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State
H1: there is practice of basic personal hygiene among school children in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State
H02:there is no relationship between poor hygiene practice and communicable diseases
H2:there is relationship between poor hygiene practice and communicable diseases
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is expected that this work will prompt the school authorities and the various parents-teachers association to collaborate to identify key areas of health needs among school children and institute appropriate health interventions. It is also expected to improve the knowledge base of classroom teachers on basic hygiene practices and the need for them to ensure adequate practice by the children.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers practice of personnel hygiene knowledge among primary school children. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
PERSONNEL HYGIENE:Good personal hygiene is essential to promoting good health. Personal hygiene habits such as washing your hands and brushing and flossing your teeth will help keep bacteria, viruses, and illnesses at bay.
KNOWLEDGE: facts, information, and skills acquired through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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