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Sports and Physical Education are inseparable, usually they are jointly taught together at the secondary schools by Physical Education teachers all over the world, (Jill 2010; Bucher and Wuest 2006). In Nigeria and indeed Plateau State Sports and Physical Education are offered and mostly taught at the junior secondary schools (Kuffo, 2012; Mgbor, 2005). Sports development at secondary schools, however depends largely, on the expected roles performed by Physical Education teachers in teaching Physical Education (Kuffo; 2014; James 2013). Sports development in Nigeria, and Plateau State in particular, is faced with a number of challenges; prominent among, which are; shortage of qualified personnel (Physical Education teachers). Lukewarm attitude of Physical Education teachers to teaching Physical Education skills, of sports/games, lack of regular organization of competitions, poor maintenance cultures of facilities and equipment, lack of adequate funding, non-innovative ability by Physical Education Teachers to mobilise funds, decayed status of facilities and equipment (infrastructures), inadequate qualified Physical Education teachers, lack of passion to teach the basic skills of games/sports practically, non-exposure of Physical Education teachers to workshops, conferences and seminars and lack of periodic organisation and administration of secondary schools sports competitions by Physical Education teachers (Kim 2008; Warner and Sharon 2007; Ladani 2007; Bucher and Wuest 2006 and Mgbor 2005).
Mgbor (2005) reported that most schools in the rural communities do not have Physical Education teachers, sports facilities and equipment due to lack of positive value orientation towards this subject. The researcher over the years has observed how sports facilities, such as
pitches, have been converted into agricultural farms. Sports halls have been converted into assembly halls and school central stores. In some secondary schools, gymnasia have been converted into social gathering halls instead of halls for students to watch various sports films. Thus, some of these challenges have posed serious problem to the development of sports in secondary schools not only in Plateau State but in Nigeria as a whole.
The level of sports development in Plateau State secondary schools still has much to be desired. This has been a matter of serious concern to the researcher. Although the National Policy on Education (2004-07), and the National Policy for Sports Development (2004-07) stated clearly that Physical Education and Sports is compulsory at the Junior Secondary level in Nigeria, this important subject is yet to be given the recognition and the attention it deserves.
The Nigeria School Sports Federation (NSSF), which came into being in 1976 as the brain child of the All Nigeria Conference of Secondary Schools Principals with the sole objective to encourage high level of sports development was also meant to promote continuous organisation and administration of intramural and extramural sports competitions in Nigerian secondary schools and to serve as a bank where young students could be sourced for future national sports competitions (Kabido, 1996; Uyah, 2009).
According to Omuruan (1996) Physical Education and sports cannot be divorced, as both accord the Physical Education teachers in a strategic role in the attainment of sports development. This implies that development of sports at post-primary level of education is the role of competent Physical Education teachers while teaching Physical Education. This could be achieved through continuous organisation and administration of sports competitions for students in their schools.
On the other hand, Bucher and Wuest (2006) also itemized planning sports competitions, conducting research in sports and Physical Education, administration and management human and materials (students-athletes and pitches) guidance and counselling on participation in Physical Education activities, intepretating the worth of Physical Education and sports to student-athletes and the general public being the roles of Physical Education, are the bedrock of the development of sports in secondary school at all levels.
Similarly, Kuffo (2014) opined that the expected roles of Physical Education teachers being the fulcrum of Physical Education in the development of sports in schools includes; mobilization of funds, motivation of students-athletes, educating parents individually and collectively stressing the need of students-athletes to develop interest in Physical Educaion and sports, educate the general public, non Physical Education teachers to the importance for mass participation in sports, conducting measurement and evaluation, conduting schools, community, religious recreational programmes, conduting sports clinic for young athletes and children, construction or improvisation of sports facilities and equipment.
Lawrence (20014) also listed required roles of Physical Education teachers in teaching Physical Education to the development of sports to includes; constant supervision of student-athletes during games, teaching Physical Education with passion, organizing radio talks on school sports and writing books on Physical Education and sports. In the same vein, to successfully advance the course of sports and Physical Education, Physical Education teachers are required to liase with principals or school management and government, through ministry of education, parents teachers association (PTA), communities opinion leaders (CPLS) non-government organizations (NGOS) politicians, philanthropists, corporate organizations and
multi-nationals organizations out of their corporate social responsibilities contribution programmes and prosecute sports programmes for students (Dinsmor 2010; Williams 2010; Siedentop 2007; Olusegun 2003 and Kochher 2003). The researchers further maintained that the responsibility of sports development in all institutions at all levels, pivots on collaborative efforts of stakeholders.
Also David (2014) stated that it is the responsibility of Physical Education teachers to device good innovative measures and attract sponsorship programmes and develop schools sports while teaching Physical Education. The author listed some of these innovative measures among others to include; launching of sports magazine governorship competition, senatorship sports competition and award presentation to best sports sponsorship governor in the state and possibly in each region.
The performance of the aforementioned roles expected by Physical Education teachers has significant contributions towards the development sports in secondary schools. For instance, there can be no meaningful development of sports, without adequate funding. Therefore Physical Education teachers have a vital role to play in fund-raising or mobilization to procure sports facilities and equipment for competitions and development. For them to succeed, they can liaise with the school administrators, the school communities, Parents Teachers Association (PTA), non-governmental organisations (NGOs) religious organisations, communities opinion leaders (CPLs), politicians and philanthropists and multi-national organisations to contribute, to the funding of sports programmes and competitions in Nigerian secondary schools especially Plateau State, (Dinsmore, 2010; William, 2010; Jill, 2010; Siedentop, 2007; Magnuson, 2003; Kochher; 2003; Oluseguns 2003,).
There are ways that could be used for development of sports, in secondary schools in Nigeria, particularly Plateau State. These include mobilizing or raising fund, successful planning as well as the organisation of intra-mural and extra-mural sports competitions. Others are Physical Education teachers attendance to workshops, conferences and seminars, proper administration or management of sports programmes and competitions, provision of adequate and standard sports facilities and equipment, mass participation of students in sporting activities, quality coaching or drilling program, proper management adequate of sports facilities and equipment, as well as commitment to teaching basic sports skills to students (Siedentop 2007; Adeola, 2003).
However, it is not certain whether Physical Education teachers in junior secondary schools in Plateau State are contributing adequately to development of sports as part of their professional role or responsibility. Thus, the study was conducted to assess the role of Physical Education teachers in the development of sports in Plateau State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Students‟ zeal to sports participation depends largely on the capacity of the Physical Education teachers at all levels. To achieve the development of sports as desired by schools and student-athletes at all stages, the effectiveness, commitment and ability of Physical Education teachers are essential (Ademola, 2005: Mgbor, 2005; Murray, 2002).
Of recent however, the development of sports at national, state and local government levels is faced with numerous problems. Some of these problems are; shortage of funds, decayed status of facilities and equipment (infrastructure), dependence of some schools on other schools,
for facilities and equipment, lack of periodic organisation and administration of competitions, Physical Education teachers‟ negative or non commitment towards the maintenance of sports facilities and equipment, Physical Education teachers, lack of exposure to workshops, conferences and seminars, teachers, common practice of teaching other science subjects like Integrated Science, Agricultural Science or Biology at the expense of teaching Physical Education. For quite sometimes now, there have been no adequate records of competitions as well as development of sports, especially in secondary schools in Plateau State. The diminishing inter-secondary schools sports competition, may not allow students with talents in various games/sports to be identified. Thus, this study is designed to investigate the relationship of Physical Education teachers teaching the development of ports in Plateau State.
1.3 Research Questions
The research was guided by the following questions:
1. Is there any significant relationship between teaching basic skills of sports/games and the development of sports in Plateau State Secondary Schools?
2. Is there any significant relationship between organisation and administration of sport competition and the development of sports in Plateau state secondary school?
3. Is there any significant relationship between maintenance of sports facilities and equipment and the development of sports in Plateau State Secondary Schools?
4. Is there any significant relationship between mobilization or fund raising and the development of sports in Plateau State Secondary Schools?
5. Is there any significant relationship between Physical Education teachers involvement in workshops, conferences and seminars and the development of sports in Plateau State Secondary Schools?
1.4 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to assess the relationship of Physical Education teachers in teaching the development of sports in Plateau State secondary schools.
Therefore, the specific purposes of the study are stated as follows:
1. To assess to what extent Physical Education teachers contribute to the development of sports in Plateau State secondary schools through the teaching of basic skills of sports/games.
2. Find out if adequate or periodic organisation and administration of sports competitions carried out by Physical Education teachers could promote the development of sports in Plateau State secondary schools.
3. Find out if the maintenance of sports facilities and equipment by Physical Education teachers contributes to sports development in Plateau State secondary schools.
4. Find out if mobilization or fund raising carried out by Physical Education teachers would be a means to the development of sports in Plateau State secondary schools.
5. Find out if Physical Education teachers involvement in or organise workshops, conferences and seminars would stimulate development of sports in Plateau State secondary schools.
1.5 Significance of the Study
At the end of the study, the outcome of the investigation would go a long way to help justify the following:
1. It is hoped that the level of commitment of Physical Education teachers to the development of sports in Plateau State secondary schools would improve.
2. It is believed that the report of this study would serve as pioneering document for other researchers in the development of sport particularly in secondary schools in Nigeria.
3. It is sure that this study would improve and broaden the scope of Physical Education teachers in organising and administering sporting activities in Plateau State secondary schools.
4. It is believed that the report of this study would be useful to government to plan and implement policies that will add to the development of sports in Nigerian secondary schools.
5. It is hoped that the report of this study would stimulate the Plateau State government to pay more attention to the development of secondary schools sports.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
The following assumptions have been made for the purpose of this study:
1. It is assumed that Physical Education teachers in Plateau State secondary schools teach basic skills of games/sports as their role to student.
2. Physical Education teachers in Plateau State secondary schools plan and organize sport competitions as their role in teaching students.
3. Physical Education teachers in Plateau State secondary schools maintain sports facilities and equipment as their role when teaching students.
4. Physical Education teachers mobilize or raise funds and utilize them and ensure sports facilities and equipment provided for games/sports and competitions in Plateau State secondary schools are in good quantity and quality.
5. Physical Education teachers in Plateau State secondary schools play their role in organizing workshops, seminars and conferences when teaching Physical Education in the of sports.
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