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1.1 Background of the study
The role that parents play in the upbringing of a child is very important. Children look up-to their parents for guidance, protection and motivation to live a great life. One of the best ways to achieve wholesome qualities of education is the partnership of parents and teachers in injecting valuable skills, conduct, and knowledge to the students (Fafunwa, 2009). All over the world parents play a vital role in the education of their child, whatever child’s age. If parents pay attention to their children, they make more scholastic achievements than those who are ignored.
The characteristics portrayed by parents play a vital role in influencing their children’s learning as well as shaping their improvement in the academic attainment and achievements and their overall behaviour and attendance. Some of the characteristics such as a parent’s attitudes, aspirations and behaviour are all important, as is their ability to: understand their child’s day-to-day progress, undertake family learning together, and talk regularly with their child about their learning (Aminu, 2010).
The characteristics of parents are conceptualized as to affect the academic performance of their children. One of the characteristics such as family backgrounds can contribute to either shaping or destroying their performance.
According to an observation made by Philips (2013), students with two parents operating in supportive roles are 52 percent more likely to enjoy school and get good marks than students whose parents are disengaged with what’s going on at school.
In Africa, education achievement is one of the most important aspects of the society. This is because in the developing nations academic achievement is one of the keys to development and growth of both the individual and the society. Thus, the characteristics portrayed by parents in the education of their children is important in ensuring that the students focus on their studies and are able to have good academic performance. In Nigeria for instance, the characteristics of parents or guardians towards learning of children is associated positively with students’ performance in school (Achebe, 2009).
According to Fafunwa (2010) among the key causes of poor performance in education, characteristics such as parental involvement and the family background have a major impact on student’s academic performance. Most research has dwelled on poor facilities and finances as among the key causes of poor academic performance among many students in public secondary schools in Nigeria. In Nigeria the influence of parents in the learning process of their children has generally been limited to financial support. Once the fee is paid most parents don’t feel obliged to take any further actions in terms of their children’s education. Rather they live the burden to the teachers who they believe they pay enough to take care of their children. Therefore with the numerous advantages that accrue from the involvement of parents in the education, it is imperative that this study be carried out on the influence of parental guidance of students’ academic performance in Government Day Secondary School Barnawa in Kaduna South Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
It can also be recognized that there are various parental characteristics which influence greatly how children get to interact with their friends in the outside world. One of the key characteristics as observed by Joel (2013) include the parenting behaviour. The parental guidance has been observed as to largely influence the prevalence of depression among students attending secondary schools.
1.2 Statement of Research
Parents impact on children’s growth cannot be underrated. Parents are characterized by unstable activities such as shifting from one area to the other in search of pasture for good living, polygamy and illiteracy. All these may pose a critical challenge on the overall education of students in the area. Moreover, it can be noted that in the rural area, the performance of students in schools is not that up-to-standards. This is whereby only a few of the students from this area receive the opportunity to further their education in the higher institutions of learning. Moreover, there are a number of more recent studies (Kashu, 2014) which have indicated that the performance of students in the rural areas have not been that impressive. For instance, Kashu indicated that school facilities affected the performance of students whereas that by Madaki (2014) noted that there were certain leadership issues which contributed to the negative performance among students.
Hence, there is need for this study to be carried out to investigate on the influence of parental guidance of students academic performance in secondary schools in Government Day Secondary Schools in Barnawa, Television amnd Ungar Boro, Kaduna South Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to find out the influence of parental guidance of students’ academic performance in Government Day Secondary Schools Barnawa, Television and Ungwar Boro in Kaduna South Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The study is guided by the following research objectives:
1. To determine how the education level of parents influences the academic performance of students in Government Day Secondary Schools Barnawa, Television and Ungwar Boro in Kaduna South Local Government Area.
2. To examine the influence of parents’ attitude to education on the academic performance of students in Government Day Secondary Schools Barnawa, Television and Ungwar Boro in Kaduna South Local Government Area.
3. To determine how parents’ economic status affects the performance of students in Government Day Secondary Schools Barnawa, Television and Ungwar Boro in Kaduna South Local Government Area.
1.4 Significance of the study
The study would be of significance in the following ways;
- The school management teams are the key beneficiaries of this study as they may have an understanding of parental characteristics which may affect the overall academic performance of their students.
- The students would benefit from this study as parents may be guided to help them improve on their academic achievement.
- Additionally, the policy makers may be in a position to identify the key critical areas which need review so as to encourage parents in improving the academic performance of their students.
- Through the findings of this study, parents would gain an insight on the various characteristics they possess which may influence the performance of their children in the study area.
- Moreover, the recommendations given would also help them in best actualizing their various characteristics for maximum promotion of their children’s academic performance.
- The study would contribute to the growing mass of knowledge on the areas of parental guidance and its influence on the academic performance of students in schools.
- It would contribute knowledge on how the educational level, economic background, attitude and family structure influence the performance of students in schools.
1.5 Research questions
The study is guided by the following research questions:
1. How does the education level of parents influence the academic performance of students in public secondary schools in Government Day Secondary Schools Barnawa, Television and Ungwar Boro in Kaduna South Local Government Area?
2. How does parent’s attitude to education influence the academic performance of students in public secondary schools in Government Day Secondary Schools Barnawa, Television and Ungwar Boro in Kaduna South Local Government Area?
3. What is the effect of parents’ economic status in the performance of students in public secondary schools in Barnawa, Television and Ungwar Boro in Kaduna South Local Government Area?
1.6 Research Hypothesis
H10 There is no significant difference on the educational level of parents influence on the academic performance of students in public secondary schools.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study is dealt on the influence of parental guidance of students’ academic performance in Government Day Secondary Schools Barnawa, Television and Ungwar Boro in Kaduna South Local Government Area of Kaduna State. It is delimited to the students within the specified secondary school in the study area.
1.8 Empirical Definition of Terms
Economic status: Refers to the financial position or level of wealth among the parents.
Educational level: Is the level of formal knowledge acquired by the parents
Influence: Refers to the power to make other people agree with your opinions or do what you want.
Parental Influence: Refers to the attributes within the parents’ circle that affect the learning of students. These influences as investigated in this study include family type, educational level, attitude and economic status.
Performance: Is a way of success and is shown by how well somebody do something
Secondary school: Refers to the post primary level of education and normally covers a duration of six years that is from Form One to Form Six.
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