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The United Nations framework convention on climate change (UNFCCC) in 1992 made climate change a policy frame work of many countries. The UNFCCC define climate change as “a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time period” (UNFCCC, 1992).
The manifestations of climate change include increase in surface temperature, change in pattern of rainfall and melting of arctic and Antarctic ice which contributes to the rise in ocean level and affects many coastal countries (Gray et al., 2001).
Studies have shown that climate change affects several aspects of the Nigerian economy including agriculture (Crop and livestock). Freshwater and coastal water resource, fisheries, forests, biodiversity, health, human settlement and housing energy e.t.c (FME, 2015 Ifeanyi – Obi et-al , 2 and 11% of Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) by 2020 (FME,2011).
Consequently, this study aims to examine house holds’ perception to climate change in Kaduna Metropolis the result of the research is expected to contribute to increase in knowledge of which need to be done for effective environmental management.
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
People stated that they have heard about the “climate change “ but the perception varies among the respondents in Kaduna metropolis some stated that climate change means flood, while some mentioned climate change as irregular rainfall. The following questions will be asked.
It has now been established unequivocally that the atmosphere of the earth is changing at a significant rate as a result of human activities. Fundamental changes in atmospheric trace gases are well documented through extensive scientific observation (Turco and Ackherman 1988).
This will lead to climatic instability that could disrupt precipitation and agricultural pattern, shift the location of deserts, destroy ecological systems and increase the mean surface air temperature (Oladipo. 1991). Awareness and education of climate change is important in achieving sustainable communities. Research has shown in china,98% of household member who completed four years or more of college education reported knowing something or a great deal or climate change while only 63% of those who have completed nine years of education reported the same (Keeling and Whorf. 2003. Therefore, policies and rules should be created and implemented so that households can be aware of climate change.
Natural cooling provided by evapotranspiration, "the process through which intercepted radiation is utilized by plants, soils, and water bodies to convert water to water vapor" (Stone and Rodgers, 2001). Second, building materials such as asphalt, cement and roofing tile absorb more thermal energy than the vegetation that existed prior to urbanization. This energy is released into the air late in the day and in the evening, keeping the city warmer than it would normally be (Lawrence, 2000).Finally, some portion of the urban heat island effect is attributable to the heat emissions from air conditioners, industry, automobiles and other sources of heat in urban centers (Stone and Rodgers, 2001). The urban heat island effect is reinforced by increased demand for cooling, consequently raising the level of greenhouse gas emissions from power plants. New Scientist Laboratory documented this effect in Los Angeles, and found a two percent increase in energy demand for every 0.8°C increase in temperature (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, 2000). In fact, the lab estimated that as much as 15 percent of the electricity consumed for air conditioning was used just of offsetting the increased urban temperatures (Rosenfeld et al, 1998).
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study is to analyze the perceptions of climate change in Kaduna metropolis among household.
This will be chivied through:
· Comprehensive literature review
· To carryout survey using structure questionnaire
· To determine the extent of understanding on the concept of climate change on household
· To determine the whether climate change is impacting on the household.
1.4 STUDY AREA
Kaduna metropolis occupies practically the entire mid- central portion of Kaduna State and situated in the northern part of Nigeria.
1.4.1 WEATHER AND CLIMATE
The Kaduna metropolis latitudinal zone lies in the part of western Africa, well within the northern limit of the movement of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). This phenomenon of the global circular of the air masses is responsible for the general climatic characteristics of the study area (Blair Rains, 1977:3) that is characterized by distinct two seasonal regimes, oscillating between cool to hot dry and humid to wet season. The climate of thestudy area can be described as the subhumid type characterized by tropical wet and dry or savannah climate (Aw).
Kaduna metropolis is located between latitude 100 38' 58' N and 100 25' 36' North of the equator to longitude 702214' E and 70 32'00' of East of the Greenwich meridian. Kaduna is the capital of Kaduna state and is located in north western region of Nigeria in the sub Saharan Africa. Spatially Kaduna metropolis covers an area span of a distance of about 25km long from Kawoin the north to the oil refinery in south up to an average width of 8-10km (max lock group, 2003:7). Kaduna metropolis is also situated along the flood plain of the Kaduna River. The town derives its name because of the river, which serves as an important source of water supply for domestic, industrial and agricultural purpose to the populace of Kaduna metropolis.
The entire Kaduna State is underlain by a basement complex of ingenious and metamorphic rocks of mainly Jurassic to Precambrian ages. The basement complex rocks are essentially granites, gneisses, migmatites, schists and quartzite (Benett, 1979:13). The geology of the metropolis comprises predominantly metamorphic rocks of the Nigerian Basement complex consisting of biotite gneisses and older granite (Kaduna State, 2003).
The consolidated lithology consists of mainly the Pan-African rocks of the upper Proterozoic. They also constitute the basement of the entire study area and comprised from oldest to youngest, Meta sediments, migmatites and foliated granites. Aeolian silts provide a blanket covering entirely of the lowlands (Max lock, 2008).
1.4.4 RELIEF AND LANDFORMS
The term relief is greatly influenced by geology. The relief of the study area is located on Kaduna plains categorized under the high plains of Northern Nigeria. The plains can be seen to lie almost entirely within Kaduna city region, incorporating only small part of Plateau, Kano, Niger states and Abuja the (the federal capita territory).
The topographical relief is relatively flat having an elevation of between 600m-650m in large areas of the metropolis, while it is above 650m height above mean sea level (a. m. s. l) in some places and below 500m that slopes down wards towards the river. Kaduna plains comprise of extensive tracks of almost level to gently undulating lightly dissected land, broken in places by groups of rocky hills and inselberg (Bennet, 1979:12).
The mean maximum monthly temperature occurs in March to May. The mean minimum temperatures are observed in December and January. During the dry season which is from November to March, the dust Laden wind (Harmattan) with dry cold and often strong winds blows from North – east within the Sahara region. Also, during Hamattan season, minimum temperature fall to below 14oc and the diurnal ranges in large.
However in Kaduna metropolis, the coolest time of the day is around 5: 00 hours and the hottest time is around 12: 00 noon.
Rainfall is one of the most important climatic variable and it’s seasonality and amount are of overriding interest to farmers, pastoralists and foresters (Blaire rains 1977:5).
As both south marine and north continental air masses are dominant for roughly half a year over Kaduna, there are two contrasting seasons. From April or May, the most south – westerly winds brings rain and both cultivation and tree growth respond immediately. However, from the month of October to April/May, the study area is subjected to cool dry north – easterly winds yield virtually no rain. This is the period that irrigation farming mostly takes place.
1.4.7 RELATIVE HUMIDITY
Kaduna metropolis mean relative humidity show high level of variability between different month of the year and especially in two district season that characterized the area. Humidity is also highly related with changes in temperature within the metropolis. Thus during the rainy season especially in August, humidity of over 80 percents are recorded with low mean monthly records of less than 20percent are recorded in January the rate of humidity varies within a day, a higher percentage is been recorded at night than during the day.
Kaduna metropolis is affected by two types of wind current which are the humidity from the north east and man soon prevailing wind from the south west. During the day season which is mostly from November to Marc, the dust laden harmattan wind, dry, cold and often strongly blowing from the north-east straight to the Saharan regions. However, in April during the raining season, the prevailing wind turn to the south west and continues from May to October. Also, the rain storms are usually violent with thunder and lighting preceded by the driving wind coming from the north eastern direction. The wind speed during harmattan in Kaduna metropolis is as high as 16.1km/s in January toward the eastern direction.
1.4.9 SOLAR RADIATION
In Kaduna metropolis, there is more sun shine around November to February than the other period of the year. The sunshine intensity is majorly associated with the cloud cover which causes the invariability in months and years that determine the solar radiation.
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