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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 background of the study
1.1.1 Type of diabetes mellitus
1.1.2 Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes): is a long – term
1.1.3 Sign and symptoms
1.1.5 What causes type 1 diabetes
1.1.6 Type 2 diabetes causes
1.1.7 Gestational diabetes causes
1.1.8 Other diabetes causes
1.1.9 Prevention and treatment
1.1.10 diabetic emergencies
2.2 Statement of the Problem
2.3 Aims and Objectives
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Dietary Management of Diabetes
2.2 Nutrient Requirements of Diabetic Patients
2.2.1 Protein Allowance
2.2.2 Fat Allowance
2.2.3 Carbohydrate Allowance
2.2.4 Vitamins and Minerals Allowance
2.2.5 Foods Allowed in Moderate Quantity in Diabetic
Foods not Allowed
2.3 production wheat and plantain flour enriched
With Bambara groundnut protein concentrate for
The management of diabetic patient
2.4 Materials and Method
2.5.1 Preparation of Plantain Flour
2.5.2 Preparation of Bambara Groundnut Flour
2.5.3 Preparation of Protein Concentrate
2.5.4 Preparation of Flour Blends
2.5.5 Functional Properties
2.5.6 Nitrogen Solubility
2.5.7 Pasting Properties of the Flour Blends
2.5.8 Statistical Analysis
2.6 Results and Discussion
2.6.1 Bulk Density, Oil and Water Absorption Capacities
2.6.2 Foam and Emulsion Capacities of the Flour Blends
2.6.3 Nitrogen Solubility
2.6.4 Pasting Characteristics of Plantain Flour and Blends
2.7.1 Brief Introduction of Wheat
2.7.2 Classes of Wheat
2.7.3 Description of Wheat Plant
2.7.4 Nutritional Components of Wheat
2.7.5 Processing of Wheat into Flour
2.7.6 Nutritive Value of Wheat Flour
2.7.7 Plant and Maintenance of Wheat
2.7.8 Harvesting and Storage of Wheat
2.7.9 Pest and Diseases of Wheat
2.8.1 Component of Plantain
2.8.2 Nutritional Values of Plantain
3.1 Area of the Study
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
3.4 Materials and Method
3.4.1 Method and Reparation
3.4.2 Ingredients Formulation
3.4.3 Production of Pankaso
3.4.4 Sensory evaluation
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection
3.6 Statistical Analysis
4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis
4.1 result and discussion
4.3.1 Result for taste
4.3.2 Result for flour
4.3.3 Result for colour
4.3.4 Result for texture
4.3.5 Result for overall acceptability
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
This study was undertaken to produce diabetic meal from wheat and plantain, sensory evaluation was carried out on the five samples, sample A (100% wheat) sample B (100% plantain), sample C (50% wheat, 50% plantain), sample D (70% plantain, 30% wheat), sample E (70% wheat, 30% plantain), for taste, flavor, colour, texture and overall acceptability. Although there was significant difference statistically in the five samples for taste, flavor, texture and overall acceptability only the colour has no significant difference, but 70% of the respondents indicate that the diet were good for diabetic patients, while 20% of the respondents comment on the nutritious value of the food that it should be given to everyone, not only diabetic patients and 10% of the respondent were not specific in their opinion. However the research work has provided on alternative in diet therapy so that diabetics now have a variety of food to select even within their restricted diet. Sample D and E has the highest level of acceptability by the judges in terms of taste from the mean and the variance, there was significant difference. Sample C and E has the highest level of acceptability by the judges in terms of colour from the mean result and the variance, the result shows that no significant difference. Sample C and E has the highest level of acceptability by the judges in terms of texture from the mean result and variance. Sample E has the highest level of acceptability by the judges in terms of taste, flavor, colour and texture of the samples and there is significant difference overall acceptability of assessment of all the samples i.e 7.11>3.63.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar level over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger (WHO 2014). If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications can include diabetics ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death (Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez et al July 2009). Serious long-term complication includes cardiovascular disease, stroke, chromic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.
Diabetes is due to either the pancrease not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced. Shoback DG, Gardner D, eds. (2011).
Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. With type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well without enough insulin, the glucose stays in your blood. You can also have prediabetes. This means that your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. Having prediabetes puts you at a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes.
1.1.1 Type of Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus type 1 also known as type 1 diabetes: is a form of diabetes mellitus in which not enough insulin is produced. This results in high blood sugar levels in the body. The classical symptoms are frequent urination, increased thirst, increased hunger and weight loss. Additional symptoms may include blurry vision, feeling tired, and poor healing – symptoms typically develop over a short period of time (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). August 2014). The cause of type I diabetes is unknown. However, it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Risk factors include having a family member with the condition (Kirkman, et al 16 June 2014).
The underlying mechanism involves an autoimmune destruction of the insulin – producing better cells in the pancreas. Diabetes in diagnosed by testing the level of sugar or A1C in the blood. Type 1diabetes can be distinguished form type 2 by testing for the presence of auto antibodies. There is no known way to prevent type 1 diabetes. Treatment with insulin is required for survival (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) July 2016) insulin pump. A diabetic diet and exercise are important parts of management.
1.1.2 Diabetes Mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes): is a long – term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin. Common symptoms include increased thirst, frequency urination, and unexplained weight loss. Symptoms may also include increased hunger, feeling tired, and sores that do not heal often symptoms come on slowly. Long-time complication from high blood sugar include heart, disease, strokes, diabetic retinopathy which can result in blindness, kidney failure, and pour blood flow in the limbs which may lead to ampulations. The sudden onset of hyperosmolar hy- perglycemic state may occur; however, ketoacidosis is uncommon (Pasquel, F J; et al November 2014), Type 2 diabetes primary occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise. Some people are genetically at risk than others. Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes (WHO August 2013) in diabetes mellitus type 1 there is a lower total level of insulin to control blood glucose, due to an autoimmune induced loss of insulin – producing beta cells in the pancreas (Gardner et al 2011). (Mackay et al 2014).
Gestational Diabetes: is a condition in which a woman without diabetes develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes generally results in few symptoms, (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) 31 July 2016).
However, it does increase the risk of pre-eclampsia, depression, and requiring a caesarean section. Babies born to mother with poorly treated gestational diabetes are at increased risk of being too large, having low blood sugar after birth, and Jaundice. If untreated, it can also result in a stillbirth. If long term, children are at higher risk of being over weight, and developing type 2 diabetes. Gestational diabetes is caused by not enough insulin in the setting of insulin resistance. Risk factors include being overweight, previously having gestational diabetes, a family history of type 2 diabetes and having polycystic ovarian syndrome. Diagnosis is by blood tests for those at normal risk screening is recommended between 24 and 28weeks’ gestation. For those at high risk testing may occur at the first prenatal visit. Prevention is by maintaining a healthy weight and exercising before pregnancy. Gestational diabetes is treated with a diabetic diet, exercise, and possibly insulin injections. Most women are able to manage their blood sugar with a diet and exercise (Donovan Peter J. et al 2016). Blood sugar testing among those who are affected is often recommended four times a day. Breastfeeding is recommended as soon as possible after birth.
1.1.3 Sign and symptoms
The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are weight loss, polyuria (increased urination), polydipsia (increased – thirst), and polyphagia (increased hunger). (Cooked DW, Plotnick L November 2008). Symptoms may develop rapidly (weeks or months) in type 1 DM, while they usually develop much more slowly and may be subtle or absent in type 2 DM. several other signs and symptom can mark the onset of diabetes although they are not specific to the disease. In addition to the known ones above, they include blurry vision, headache, fatigue, slow healing of cuts, and itchy skin. Prolonged high blood glucose can cause glucose absorption in the lens of the eye, which leads to changes. A number of skin rashes that can occur in diabetes are collectively known as diabetic dermadromes (Hsieh, Arthur June 2016).
Comparison of type 1 and 2 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes
Age at onset
Mostly in children
Mostly in adults
Thin or normal
Low or absent
Normal, decreased or increased
Concordance in identical twins
1.1.5 What causes type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is caused by the immune system destroying the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. This causes diabetes by leaving eh body without enough insulin to function normally. This is called an autoimmune reaction, or autoimmune cause, because the body is attacking itself. There is not specific diabetes causes, but the following triggers may be involved.
(1) Viral or bacterial infection
(2) Chemical toxins within food
(3) Unidentified component causing autoimmune reaction. (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) 2017). Underlying genetic disposition may also be a type 1 diabetes cause.
1.1.6 Type 2 Diabetes Causes
Type 2 diabetes causes are usually multifactorial. More than one diabetes cause is involved. Often the most over whelming factor is a family history of type 2 diabetes. This is the most likely type 2 diabetes cause. There are a variety of risk factors for type 2 diabetes any or all of which increase the chances of developing the condition. Those include:
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