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Back ground of the Study

Economic and population growth have led to the rapid urbanization and development in the CBD. As a result of the rising level of development, the demand for local amenities such as on-street parking for developments adjacent to transport corridors has increased. However the process of the community utilizing on-street parking can reduce road capacity as well as the achievable driving speeds for the roads adjacent to developments. Accordingly, traffic delays are a common experience in most of the urban transport corridors due to the complexity of the interaction between traffic flow and land use. To date, literature has not presented a comprehensive study quantifying the impact of on-street parking on traffic flow within the Kaduna Metropolitan area and this study aims to fill this gap. Traffic congestion within urban transport networks has been an issue for transport planners and traffic engineers during the past few decades. Currently, traffic congestion is a daily occurrence in study area and major arterial corridors during peak periods. (litman 1999) Traffic congestion can be a result of a number of factors including the lack of capacity during peak periods, disruptions within a network such as traffic accidents, vehicle breakdowns, road works and traffic control measures (such as traffic signals and traffic calming devices). A city based analysis shows that the cost of congestion in the study area will rise to about $6.1 billion in 2020 (BTRE 2007). The estimates do not take into account the cost of implementing appropriate measures to alleviate traffic congestion. Traffic congestion can be managed by either controlling the travel demand or increasing the road capacity. Travel demand management is the use of policies and strategies to restrain trips, especially during peak traffic periods to alleviate traffic congestion. However, implementation of effective travel demands management measures are difficult, unpopular and politically sensitive (Gärling & Schuitema 2007). The conventional approach to address traffic congestion in urban areas is to construct new road infrastructure or expand the existing road transport corridors. This approach has become costly, time consuming and infeasible in most of the cities due to lack of space for road works and potential environmental factors. Furthermore, there have also been a number of studies which have suggested that an increase in the capacity of roadways can create a greater level of congestion (Mogridge 1997, Goodwin et al. 1998, Noland 2001, Cervero & Hansen 2002). Capacity expansion, by means of road widening, creates the phenomenon of induced travel demand for that particular corridor. The other alternative is to improve the capacity of the existing road infrastructure by application of congestion management strategies and policies. Implementation of congestion management strategies and policies are cheaper and faster, but often politically sensitive Marsden 2006 Some of these policies require minimal effort and cost to implement; such as peak period parking restrictions, turning restrictions and imposing access restrictions for new traffic generating land use developments Litman, in 2013 said Automobiles do not have excessive space for moving, they have a "zone of influence" which expands as the speed and quality of traffic increases, thus reducing the effectiveness of exchange space and the level of interaction. He added that  The interaction between street space and population density reveal that dense areas denote a greater share of land to streets, but also have less street space per capital. In places where most people drive, it fuels urban congestion, because street mileage cannot be increased as rapidly as increases in people, who bring with them increases in vehicle miles travelled. Litman 2013, Parking requirements are the responsibility of government and are thus defined by local needs. Municipalities require minimum parking requirements to ensure that a development contains an adequate number of spaces to avoid parking spill over on to adjacent streets and properties and to maintain traffic circulation The science behind creating parking standards is extremely complex as it is often difficult to determine the actual demand for parking that a development will create. Location is a very important factor for the car park operator. The growth in population of the world today, towns and cities have grown up around their public transport system. The increasing population and expanding urban centre has been accompanied by increasing car ownership

In Nigeria, as elsewhere, where cars are one of the dominant modes of transportation, urban circulation is one of the most obvious problems, and parking seems to be an overlooked element of transportation development. Venues of activities such as offices, markets, shops, sports, churches and similar places often generate enormous parking demands, and the difficulty of parking vehicles at desired destinations particularly when located within the central areas of the city constitutes a major problem Edwards, J. D. (2002) Carryout a study on Illegal parking which they view that the major problem in Nigerian. Is roadside parking as a common phenomenon which reduces the traffic corridors meant for the efficient movement of automobiles? It reveals that the effectiveness of the parking location usage can be improved if the parkers’ behavior in choosing parking location as known. For planning purposes, knowledge about parkers’ behavior can also support the allocation of parking demand according to the parking location..(Litman 2013) As wonderful as the role of transport may be in our daily activities, it has been noted to possess myriads of negative effects. He view Convenient and affordable parking is considered as a sign of welcome, but the case is the opposite in the study area. It is highly discouraging that parking has become serious problem that confront the road users in the study area. Litman in his research on ‘Affordable housing in a dynamic city ‘he argue that Parking space problems are very common in the Central Business District he view urbanization as a major reason for parking challenges, .taking a close view on Litman findings, the present study area has few similarity, This study aim to investigate the challenges of parking space in the study area

Statement of Problem

 The provision of car parking is a fundamental component of all urban developments. Insufficient car parking provision can lead to congested, unsafe traffic conditions or result in illegal parking and may impact on the commercial viability of businesses transport planning and development, apart from building basic infrastructure and highways, is far behind the demand of vehicle activities. The provision of parking facilities in commercial areas has been an overlooked area in most of the developing countries and this may affect future economic activity and environmental quality. This is because parking on roadside, which is a common phenomenon in study area reduces the traffic corridors meant for the efficient movement of automobiles. Thus, it becomes a major problem in cities and especially in the Central Business District (CBD), where multi-storey buildings are common and the land use is devoted mostly to commercial purposes. The resultant effect of such illegal parking, therefore, is traffic congestion which leads to delay in travelling time and increases the cost of travelling because more fuel is used up in the process of accomplishing a delayed journey in practically all major cities, the time and frustration associated with finding a parking space during peak hours not only upsets drivers, but also significantly decreases the city’s economic, environmental, and social sustainability. increased traffic congestion is making it tougher and tougher to get around on our regions roads, to make matters worse, when you finally reach your destination, you often cannot find a place to park observe that traffic flow, traffic growth and congestion are some of the main economic and societal problems related to transportation in industrialized countries. These problems manifest in the form of environmental pollution, delay, and accidents, land use severance amongst others. In the study area there is no adequate parking facilities, therefore this study seeks to know what impact on-street parking has on commercial property value in the study area. And to provide solution to problem found.

Research Questions

1.                  What pattern of parking space exists in the study area?

2.                  What is the value of on street parking on commercial property?

3.                  What are the strategies that can be adopted in the management of on street   parking space on Commercial properties value in the study area?

4.                  What is the impact of on-street parking on economic development and land value?

Aim and Objectives

The aim of the research is to examine the impact of on-street parking on commercial property value with a view of providing strategies for better management and supply of parking facilities in the study area.

The objectives of this research work are as follows;

1.      To identify the patterns of parking space in the study area.

2.      To examine the value of on street parking on commercial property

3.      To identify some strategies that can be adopted in the management of on street parking space on commercial property value in the study area.

4.      To determine, the degree possible, the impact that on-street parking has on economic development, and land value.

Significance of the Study

The result of this research will provide insight on how to improve the traffic situation in the study area through effective and efficient car parking management systems, ways to minimize the negative impacts of car usage on people's daily life and also the benefits that will be derived in equipping the car parking areas. It will also be of great value and the relevance for decision makers, transport planners, estate surveyors, student of estate management and valuation to know the economic value of parking space in any kind of property it will also be of benefit to transport consultants, and to the general public, for awareness and compliance

Scope and Limitation

The spatial scope of this study will cover some selected plaza on BIDA ROAD-IBRAHIM TAIWO ROAD along AHMADU BELLO WAY in Kaduna which have been observed to experience on-street parking. The major limitation to this study include time and financial constrain.

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